According to the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, mangrove forest is a typical littoral plant formation on protected tropical and sub-tropical coasts. Plants in this forest grow on alluvial mud soil in coastal areas and river mouths which are influenced by tides.
The mangrove forest area is a hiding place and breeding ground for fish and various small animals in the sea. Not only that, mangroves are a place to stay, a source of food, and a place to grow for small marine animals.
Mangrove forests also have an important function for the environment, namely as a damper sea wave to prevent abrasion, reduce wind, and as a barrier to mud from land so as not to pollute the sea.
The following is characteristics of mangrove forests What makes this forest different from other ecosystems:
- The land is inundated with sea water, either continuously or at high tide
- Get a source of fresh water, either from rivers or groundwater that serves to reduce salinity, increase the supply of nutrients and mud
- The type of soil is muddy or sandy and contains a lot of coral fragments
- The ocean currents are not too strong
- Air temperature fluctuation is not more than 10 degrees Celsius
- Brackish water with a salinity of 2 to 22 parts per trillion (ppt)
- Sloping topography
- Mangrove roots can be submerged in sea water when high tide or exposed to air because it functions to absorb oxygen, either from water or from the air.
- The types of plants that grow in mangrove forests are special because they have to survive with salt water
- Mangrove roots are strong because they function as a buffer to withstand waves
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