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Unveiling the Mystery of the Klinefelter Cycle: The Core of Life by Nick Lane – A Book Review

2024-02-14 14:00 Langlangyuedu Owl Publishing House

The author of this book, Nick. Nick Lane was at the research site and explained in detail the Klinefelter cycle and the more primitive “reverse Klinefelter cycle” – leading readers to understand step by step how the Klinefelter cycle transmits energy and combines and disassembles everything needed for life. substance.

Life is a chemical phenomenon. This book tells a scientific adventure story that affects life, connecting the diverse aspects of biochemical research over the past century, and also reveals that the Klinefelter cycle connects the first photosynthetic bacteria and various specialized cells in you and me. , the truth that still sits at the core of life. (Editor’s note)

Text/Huang Zhenxiang (Associate Professor, Department of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University)

Introduction──City of Life

Is a city alive?

The answer to this question varies from person to person, but whether a cell is alive depends on whether it can actively maintain the flow of energy and matter. All biologists would agree that the flow of energy and matter is necessary for life to sustain and develop.

If we think about it carefully, we will find that all cells on the earth use almost the same metabolic method, and they all abide by the central dogma of molecular biology (that is, information flows from DNA to RNA and then to protein), even the codons used Most of them are similar. Even the energy currency is almost all ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and the way it is generated is the electron transport chain. Moreover, this ATP itself can become a component of DNA. Just like one day when we wake up, governments of all countries use Is it really a coincidence that the official language, government system and currency are exactly the same?

Nick. Professor of evolutionary biochemistry at University College London, UK. Lane, after deeply thinking about the nature and origin of life, in this book “The Core of Life”, he wants to demonstrate to us that in the flow of energy and matter in life, the most important thing is Kreb for short. The Krebs cycle of the Krebs cycle! This cycle is also called the tricarboxylic acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), which can be referred to as the TCA cycle or the citric acid cycle (citric acid cycle).

This cycle is a must-read and required metabolic reaction in biochemistry that is required in most life sciences, medicine, and agriculture-related departments. It is of course extremely important. However, Lien would go further and point out that this biochemical reaction is indispensable for understanding key life science and biomedical issues such as the origin of life, aging, cancer, and consciousness.

In addition to being a very creative scholar, Lien also worked hard to publish books to promote his innovative ideas about life phenomena to the public. He published the best-selling “Power, Sex, Death: Mitochondria and Our Life” , Suicide: Mitochondria and the Meaning of Life), “Life Ascending: The Ten Great Inventions of Evolution”, “Life Ascending: The Ten Great Inventions of Evolution”, “The Source of Life: Energy, Evolution and Complexity” The Vital Question: Why Is Life The Way It Is?, and Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882) originally included the latest ideas about natural selection in On the Origin of Species. Origin of Species) has different approaches but the same purpose.

Life science is a subject that is changing rapidly, but the Klinefelter cycle seems to have been fixed after the appearance of biochemistry textbooks in high school decades ago, and it has become the standard answer that has been finalized. It is also possible that too many students have been poisoned by the chemical formulas and chemical reactions of succinic acid, pyruvate, acetyl coenzyme A, cytochrome C, etc. that must be memorized in the biochemistry exam. They may not have the time or energy to think carefully about the subtleties. at.

Lien is one of the few scholars who has thought deeply about the real mystery of life of the Klinefelter cycle. In this book “The Core of Life”, he will argue that the Klinefelter cycle is the key secret to the source of all life! In addition to putting forward novel and bold claims, he also supplemented the history of science outside the textbook, telling how the great biochemists cracked the biochemical core, and incidentally also detailed the grievances and resentments between them.

How important is the Klinefelter cycle? The most common way we use energy in our lives is through combustion, which produces various waste products. For example, all we need is light but heat, and vice versa. However, cellular respiration is not only the slow burning of carbon and hydrogen, but also the acquisition of energy from fuel through precise control, using enzymes to use every drop of energy on the cutting edge, and almost nothing is wasted. This is the Byker cycle Given.

The mechanism by which we obtain energy from food is the Klinefelter cycle. In the oxidative phosphorylation step, the generated electrons are transferred to carrier molecules, thereby producing ATP, which is used by various cells to convert into kinetic energy, chemical energy or electrical energy, which can provide Energy requirements in living organisms. The Klinefelter cycle is the core of metabolic reactions in organisms and the basis of life activities. The Klinefelter cycle can metabolize sugars, lipids, and most amino acids, because these three types of substances can be converted into acetyl-CoA or citric acid cycle intermediates.

Few people know that this reaction cycle can be reversed in some of the oldest bacteria, fixing carbon dioxide and hydrogen to produce all the key building blocks of biochemistry, turning ambient gases into the heart of metabolism. This means that cells can operate in many ways, so there is no single Klinefelter cycle. Lane compared it to an extremely busy circle, with different vehicles constantly entering and exiting from different intersections. Life then manufactures everything it needs from these molecules – amino acids for making proteins and lipids for making cell membranes. , the nucleotides that make the genetic molecules DNA and RNA.

Even if ancient bacteria can reverse the Klinefelter cycle, we still have to answer the question: How could the most primitive life do this before the formation of cell membranes? Because the energy released by the Krebsch cycle is used to power the charge on the inner membrane of the cell’s mitochondria (once one of the free-living ancient bacteria), this process generates an electric field with a strength of up to 30 million per meter. volt.

Lane and others demonstrated many years ago and wrote in “The Origin of Life” that deep-sea hydrothermal vents are the birthplace of life. Calcium carbonate chimneys up to 60 meters high contain porous structures. These pores may be double-layered cell membranes. Templates, proton gradients between inorganic membranes found within those vents may hold the key to fueling the chemistry of life. His lab also found that the energy gradient that exists between the alkaline effluent and the acidic ocean can indeed hydrogenate carbon dioxide.

After the birth of modern life, most of the energy on the earth came from the sun and was captured by plants through photosynthesis and stored in molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. When an animal eats a plant, the Klinefelter cycle extracts energy from the food and passes it to the electron transport chain of cellular respiration. Simply put, the energy we need to live comes from the process of stripping carbon and oxygen to create carbon dioxide waste, and then stripping hydrogen to create water. Lane contends that the Klinefelter cycle is basically about taking hydrogen and burning it in oxygen to provide us with all the energy we’ll ever have.

Looking back at the history of life, Lane illustrates the deep connection between the reverse Klinefelter cycle and photosynthesis, which in turn caused Earth’s air to become rich in oxygen, paving the way for the modern Klinefelter cycle that requires oxygen. However, modern animals can not only decompose organic matter using the Klinefelter cycle, but also synthesize it. So how do animals do it at the same time?

Lane pointed out that the Klinefelter cycle is not so much a complete cycle as a circuitous cycle, and the flow of metabolism must be controlled to complete a specific job. Animals have multiple tissues and organs, and metabolic flow can be balanced in one tissue differently than another, a symbiotic relationship between interdependent tissues.

Water can carry or capsize a boat. Metabolism keeps us alive. In a cell, there are more than one billion metabolic reactions per second. These responses do not always function properly, and damage inevitably accumulates. The relative concentration ratio of Klinefelter cycle intermediates reflects the healthy state of the cell at homeostasis. When the Klinefelter cycle is imbalanced, it will lead to abnormal cell metabolism, thereby affecting the body’s health and lifespan.

Lien pointed out that maintaining the balance and stability of Klinefelter’s circulation is one of the important factors in maintaining good health and extending lifespan. As we age, our mitochondria gradually wear out, usually due to inflammation, so work performance is poor and breathing slowly begins to weaken. This affects the Klinefelter cycle, slowing it down or reversing it, and aging begins.

Lane believes that aging and cancer are essentially metabolic problems. We usually think of cancer as a disease caused by genetic mutations. However, he went against the mainstream and argued that the greatest risk factor for cancer is age, which has little to do with the accumulation of mutations. Instead, a slowdown in metabolism turns thousands of genes on or off, transforming our cells into an aging epigenetic state that favors uncontrolled cell growth and mutation. It is changes in cell metabolism, not genetic mutations, that cause cancer.

Book title: “The Core of Life: The Klinefelter Cycle that Dominates the Life and Death of All Things” Author: Nick. Nick Lan…

The most incredible thing is that Lane believes that metabolic flow is a continuous flow of energy and matter in life. The metabolic balance is adjusted at all times according to the ratio between us and other molecules, and is also affected by changes in the external world. He pointed out that consciousness is not a characteristic of the complex nervous systems of higher animals, but a more basic state that operates at the cellular level. Therefore, he argued that metabolic flow has an important impact on our existence and consciousness. It is the basis of our life and one of the sources of our consciousness.

Lien further pointed out that feeling is a kind of electromagnetic field, and even bacteria can rely on electromagnetic fields to “feel” the rapid changes in the surrounding environment. Therefore, he argued that the electromagnetic fields generated by metabolic processes such as the Klinefelter cycle may be the basis of consciousness. One of the evidence he presented was that the inert gas xenon acts as an anesthetic and promotes the transfer of electrons to oxygen in cellular respiration, but has almost no other effect. When cells produce energy currency, the moving charges on the membrane generate an electromagnetic field, which oscillates synchronously with the water molecules in the cells, allowing all metabolic molecules to sing a symphony in unison, making us feel like we are still alive!

Of course, many of Lien’s arguments from the perspective of biochemical metabolism still need more evidence to support, but I believe that one day his ideas on the origin of life, aging, cancer, consciousness, etc. will withstand scientific verification, at least some of them Some will be written into textbooks, let’s wait and see!

●This article is excerpted from “The Core of Life: The Klinefelter Cycle that Dominates the Life and Death of All Things” published by Owl Publishing House.

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