How does a neutron star, which forms when a star with a huge mass becomes a supernova, affect humanity?
Stars are formed when large numbers of plasmas are forced into the center by gravity. Stars, which are gaseous celestial bodies that emit light on their own, like the sun, react to each other due to the pressure inside. Hydrogen turns into deuterium and deuterium turns into helium 4. As energy is released during this series of changes, the external pressure due to the emitted energy and the internal pressure due to gravity combine near the center of the star . A star whose external and internal pressure are the same is said to be stable.
However, if the star is much larger than the sun, it may appear stable, but there are cases where problems occur inside. The internal pressure due to gravity wins because the external pressure due to the energy released after the hydrogen turns into helium 4 and completes the reaction is lowered. Under this internal pressure, the size of the star itself decreases.
As a result of the increase in pressure, the temperature and rate of the star’s nuclear combustion increase, and in the core, carbon turns into neon, neon turns into oxygen, oxygen turns into silicon, and finally iron. When the entire core of the star becomes iron, the reaction is complete and the external pressure due to the emitted energy becomes zero. When the external pressure becomes zero, the internal pressure due to gravity is applied to the core. Usually, particles such as electrons and protons keep some distance from each other due to intermolecular forces. However, when the force of gravity increases, the pressure becomes so high that they cannot keep some distance from each other.
This pressure is enough to compress the core of an Earth-sized star to a size as small as a city. This pressure causes the outer edge of the planet to shrink inward at 25% of the speed of light and eventually explode. The explosion disperses the iron inside the core into space. this is a supernova The light produced by the supernova has the power to illuminate the entire universe.
What remains after such a supernova is the neutron star in question. The mass of a neutron star is equal to one million of that of the Earth, but its volume is only 25 cubic km on one side. Therefore, the gravitational force with neutron stars is the second strongest in the universe after black holes. Light passing around a neutron star is thinned in its direction by gravity. Furthermore, the surface temperature of a neutron star reaches 1 million degrees Celsius. For reference, the surface temperature of the sun is 6,000 degrees Celsius.
A neutron star is made up of three layers: the atmosphere, the crust and the core. The crust boasts enormous strength as the iron left over from the supernova combines with each other into metal. Also, the closer to the nucleus, the greater the pressure due to gravity, so it can be thought of as condensed and adhered to iron atoms. The layers appear to stick to the inside of the crust. The iron atoms adhered to the line are compared to spaghetti and the iron atoms adhered to the layers are compared to lasagna, and the surface of the neutron star is called nuclear paste. This nuclear pulp has the highest hardness in the universe and can be thought of as a substantially unbreakable material.
The nucleus of a neutron star lies further within this nuclear paste. It is predicted to be in a Quark-Gluon Plasma state, in which quarks, which are decomposition products, float in the nucleus of a neutron star. There is also a theory that quark = gluon plasma can create strange matter, the most dangerous material in the universe.
When a neutron star collapses, the neutron star rotates at high speed like a ballerina. This high-speed spin and the neutron star’s magnetic field combine to create a huge radio wave. A neutron star in this state is called a pulsar. The magnetic field produced by a pulsar is 1,000 trillion times stronger than the Earth’s magnetic field.
It is known that a kilonova, the merger of two neutron stars, causes a big bang. Heavy metals such as gold, uranium and platinum are also believed to have been produced by the kilonova. Finally, the two neutron stars that caused the kilonova become black holes.
Various substances are scattered in outer space by supernova and kilonova. These materials are attracted to each other by their gravitational pull, causing stars, planets and neutron stars to be reborn. The science and technology used in modern society is also based on elements that neutron stars created long ago. In this regard, neutron stars can be said to have created the world we are today.