Types of Planets in the Solar System and Their Characteristics That Need to Be Understood

Merdeka.com – The types of planets in the solar system have their own characteristics and characteristics. The solar system itself is a collection of celestial bodies. The sun acts as the center of the solar system which is surrounded by planets, comets, and meteors.

All celestial bodies, including planets, move around the sun in elliptical or elliptical orbits. The solar system is located at the edge of the Milky Way galaxy.

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It is thought to have formed billions of years ago through clumps of dust and gas in space. Then, it formed the sun and the planets that revolved around it.

Then, what are the kinds of planets in the solar system and what are their characteristics? Check out the full review quoted from teacher’s room and various sources, Wednesday (15/6/2022):

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Kinds of Planets in the Solar System

Before discussing about the kinds of planets in the solar system, it’s good to know the meaning of the planet itself. Literally, a planet can be interpreted as a celestial body that orbits or surrounds a star with a certain trajectory and speed.

At the center of our solar system, there are 8 planets revolving around the sun as its center. The names of the planets include Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

The eight planets have their own characteristics and characteristics. For example, Earth, this planet is the only place that humans can inhabit. This is because the characteristics and characteristics of the earth have elements that allow living things to develop.

Types of Planets Based on Asteroid Position

1. The Inner Planet

Kinds of planets are divided into 2 groups. The two groups include the outer planets and the inner planets. Each planet that falls into the two groups has different characteristics and characteristics.

Inner planets are planets whose paths lie between the sun and the asteroid belt or planetoid coir. Some of the planets that belong to the type of inner planets such as:


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Mercury is a planet that has the title as the smallest and closest planet to the Sun. Its diameter is about 4,879 km and its distance is about 58 km. This gray planet has a very extreme temperature, during the day the temperature reaches 430 degrees Celsius and at night it reaches -180 degrees Celsius.

Mercury moves around the sun quickly, so it only takes 58 days for one orbit, while its rotation period is 59 days. Mercury is often called the morning star because it sometimes rises and is visible in the morning. Mercury is made up of about 70% metals and 30% silicates.

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This planet is usually known as the morning star or evening star because it has a yellowish white color. Venus is 108 million km from the sun and is the brightest planet in the solar system.

This is due to its highly concentrated atmosphere, mostly carbon dioxide and white clouds due to the burning hot sulfuric acid. The planet Venus rotates against the direction of rotation of the other planets.

Venus is 12,100 km in diameter, slightly smaller than Earth. This planet takes 225 days for one orbit around the sun, and 243 days for one rotation. One day on Venus is equal to 243 days on Earth.


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Planet Earth consists of 71% water and 29% land. Earth is 149 million km from the sun and has a diameter of about 12,700 km. This planet is the only place inhabited by living things.

For one orbit around the sun, the Earth takes 1 year (365.25 days), while the rotation period is 24 hours. Earth has a natural satellite called the moon.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the sun. The average distance of Mars from the sun is 228 km. Its size is twice as small as the earth, which is about 6,800 km in diameter. In the past, Mars was said to have an atmosphere that almost resembled Earth.

However, now Mars has a very thin atmosphere, consisting mostly of carbon dioxide (95.3%), nitrogen (2.7%), argon (1.6%), oxygen (0.15%), and water. (0.03%)

The planet Mars has a surface in the form of rocks that contain iron oxide so Mars is also referred to as the red planet. Mars also has ice poles and active volcanoes like Earth.

The time of revolution about the sun is 687 days, while the time of its rotation is 24.6 hours. Mars has two satellites namely Phobos and Deimos.

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2. Outer Planets

The definition of an outer planet is a planet whose trajectory is outside the asteroid’s trajectory. Planets that enter this group are called gas giants or gas giants.
This is because the outer planets are composed of various types of large gases that exist. The characteristics of the outer planets also have high internal pressure. Some of the planets that are included in the type of outer planets such as:


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Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system, with a diameter of 142,860 km. Its distance from the sun is about 778 million km. This planet has an atmosphere consisting of hydrogen and helium.

Jupiter has physical characteristics in the form of planetary colors that appear in layers with a combination of orange and white colors. This planet also has a thin ring around it.

Jupiter is made up of gas, but lacks light and high heat, so it is called a failed star. In addition, Jupiter is also nicknamed the savior because it can suck up the dust of the solar system due to its strong gravity.

As a result, Jupiter attracts many comets and asteroids to crash into it and not crash into other planets. Jupiter’s time of revolution is 12 years and its rotation is 9.8 hours. Jupiter has the most moons in the solar system, including Io, Europa, Ganymede and Calisto.

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The planet Saturn is 1,428 million km from the Sun. It is the second largest planet after Jupiter, with a diameter of 120,000 km. Saturn has a layered ring of ice crystals that is 402,000 km wide and 15 km thick.

The time of revolution of the planet is 29.5 years and the time of its rotation is 10 hours 36 minutes. It has 62 satellites, one of the most famous of which is Titan. The planet Saturn is pale yellow in color and has about 56 satellites.


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Being in 7th place from the sun, Uranus is the coldest planet in the solar system with a temperature of around -224 degrees Celsius. No wonder, if this planet is called the largest ice giant. Uranus is 2.9 billion km from the sun, its diameter reaches 51,118 km.

The planet Uranus is very different from the other planets because its axis of rotation is parallel to its orbital plane. Uranus has a period of revolution of 84 years and a period of rotation of 17 hours and 14 minutes.

Uranus has 27 satellites including Miranda, Ariel, Umbreil, Titania and Oberon. The planet Uranus has also been found to have rings but is difficult to observe because of its sheer size.

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Neptune is about 4.5 billion km from the sun with a diameter of 49,600 km. The state of the planet Neptune is almost the same as Uranus so it is often called the twin planet.

Neptune is blue in color and has rings but is very thin. Uranus’ time of revolution is 165 years and its rotation period is 15 hours and 48 minutes. It has 13 satellites, including Triton and Nereid.

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