“Show that it is possible at the scale of a territory, at no additional cost to the community, to offer any long-term unemployed person who wishes it, a job of indefinite duration and at a chosen time, by developing and financing activities useful and not competing with existing jobs to meet the needs of the various actors of the territory: inhabitants, companies, institutions… ” It is in these terms that the association Territoires zero long-term unemployed (TZCLD) defines its objective. These useful and non-competing activities are carried out by an employment enterprise (EBE), a concept specifically developed within the framework of this experiment. EBEs can have several legal forms (SA, SAS, Scop, SCIC, association…) but are always non-profit.
One of the fundamental principles of the TZCLD is to contact all the long-term unemployed and to include all those who wish it in the process, according to their know-how. In order to operate economically, the TZCLD proposes to reallocate to the project the social expenses linked to the long-term unemployment of the people concerned in addition to the turnover of the enterprise for employment purposes.
45% of the unemployed have been unemployed for more than a year
Out of 1,044,990 applicants required to look for a job (categories A, B, C, D) in the second quarter of 2020 in Ile-de-France, 473,540 have been doing so for more than a year, or 45.3%.
In Val-de-Marne over the same period, the number of people unemployed for more than a year was 50,690 out of 113,630, or 44.6%. Of these 50,690 long-term unemployed, 18,240 have been unemployed for more than 3 years.
Source: Pôle Emploi – Dares
A project born out of local experimentation
It is an experiment carried out in 1995 in Seiches-sur-le-Loir (Maine-et-Loir) by a local adapted work association (Aita) and the Travail, Métier network of the ATD Fourth World movement which developed the concept and revealed the need to legislate to make it possible. The project is progressing, supported by a collective of associations (ATD Fourth World, Emmaüs France, Secours Catholique, the Federation of Solidarity Actors (formerly FNARS), the Civic Pact, Bleu Blanc Zèbre) and led to parliament by the PS deputy for Côte d’Or Laurent Grandguillaume, today president of the TZCLD association.
Launch of the first territories at the end of 2016
At the end of 2016, the project obtained its legal framework for experimentation (Law of 29 February 2016 on territorial experimentation aimed at reducing long-term unemployment), with a fund to finance it, and the first ten experimental areas are proposed for a period of five years.
The top 10 areas for experimentation
1) European metropolis of Lille in the North. This urban area brings together two districts: Tourcoing Menin and Loos, les Oliveaux. It is the only territory to have opened 2 EBEs.
2) Paris 13. Urban territory bringing together two QPV (political district of the city).
3) Colombey-et-sud-Toulois, in Meurthe-et-Moselle. Rural territory bringing together thirty-eight municipalities.
4) Colombelles in Calvados. Urban territory corresponding to a municipality.
5) Pipriac-Saint-Ganton in Ille-et-Vilaine. Urban territory corresponding to a municipality.
6) Mauléon in Deux-Sèvres. Urban territory bringing together two QPVs.
7) Prémery in the Nièvre. Rural territory bringing together thirteen municipalities.
8) Thiers in the Puy-de-Dôme. Urban territory bringing together two QPVs.
9) Villeurbanne-Saint-Jean in the Rhône.
10) Jouques in the Bouches-du-Rhône. Rural territory bringing together a municipality
First evaluation and new law to extend the experiment
At the end of 2019, a scientific committee dedicated to the project submitted an interim evaluation report on the project, suggesting that the experiment be extended and extended to other territories, before generalizing it, and detailing the deployment methods that could be improved to make the device work better.
Download the interim report
Since September 2020, a new bill has been under consideration in parliament, which notably provides for extending the system for five years and extending it to 50 new territories. (See the legislative dossier) After a first examination by the National Assembly and the Senate, it must be finalized in a joint committee (body which brings together representatives of the two chambers) to adjust their amendments.
How Chennevières-sur-Marne is preparing to apply
In parallel with the legislative process of the TZCLD, other territories have started to subscribe to this process in order to apply in the event of extension to new territories. In total, 122 initiatives have been labeled as emerging projects by the TZCLD association. This is the case of the experiment currently being carried out in Chennevières-sur-Marne, where the City Council voted unanimously in favor of this candidacy in June 2019.
Map of 13 emerging TZCLD projects in Ile-de-France
In Chennevières-sur-Marne, the territory includes the Hauts-de Chennevières – Bordes plain, the Bois l’Abbé and the industrial zone. The Association Initiatives Territoires Zéro Chômeur de Longue Term en Val-de-Marne, which carries the local project, was created in March 2018 and is made up jointly of unemployed people for more than one year, volunteers and a associative college which is based at this stage on Work and Appendre Ensemble (TAE) created by the ATD Fourth World movement.
“These are citizens who gave the impetus, with the coordinator of the Val Bio integration project”, says Caroline Nouar, project manager of the association, who previously worked at Pôle Emploi. Objective: to finalize the application for the beginning of 2021.
For the moment, the association has 23 members, volunteers and future employees. “We contacted the long-term unemployed through the Departmental Space for Solidarity (EDS) of the Departmental Council, which invited RSA beneficiaries to a meeting. There is no typical profile. We have a lady who has a master’s degree in sociology and management of organizations obtained in Benin as well as people who cannot write French. The age is also varied but rather above 40 years ”, indicates the project manager.
Among these future employees, Sofiane, 33, has already lined up a lot of different jobs after his BTS in IT and his degree in economics. “I have been a driver of children with reduced mobility, cash register installer, board game host … I have also created a self-business importing products from Tunisia”, he lists. “In this project, we have common values and we look at the economy from another angle. What interests me particularly is to develop ecological last mile delivery ”, he explains.
To apply, the Canavéroise association must indeed tie up the entire organization of its human resources, employees and volunteers, but also foreshadow its future activities and customers in a concrete way, which requires a census of local needs.
In this context, links have in particular been forged with the Grand Paris Sud Est Avenir region, of which Chennevières is a part. “For example, they have raised needs concerning the delivery of the last mile”, explains Caroline Nouar. Discussions are also developing with companies that are members of the local employment committee, such as the Metro wholesalers. “They expressed their wish to develop services to bring customers to stores in the face of the Internet explosion. For example, we could offer a vehicle cleaning service ”, illustrates the project manager, specifying that it will be washing without water to comply with the environmental commitments of TZCLD projects.
“The difference and complementarity with traditional aid companies is that we create our own portfolio of activities. These arise from the needs of the local population and businesses which have not yet been covered and would not necessarily be profitable in the classic sense of the term. One of our missions is to bring out these specific needs of the territory ”, explains Eric Robertet, president of the association.
On the other hand, the activity must remain non-competitive locally so as not to cause prejudice to an SME operating without aid, this is the principle of the TZCLD initiatives and the mayor of Chennevières, Jean-Pierre Barnaud (Modem), who supports the project, recalls this precondition. In the EBE (Enterprise for employment) which will be created if the project materializes, the State in fact finances 70% of the wage charge during the time of the experiment. “This corresponds to the total amount that society infuses anyway to keep the long-term unemployed at home”, explains Caroline Nouar, recalling that the objective is for the project to be able to develop beyond the time of experimentation and even, in the long term, stand on its own feet thanks to the invoiced activities.