In April 2019, the Lancet journal published a research paper entitled “Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017”.
The study is the first large-scale study to analyze the mortality and disease burden caused by dietary structure in 195 countries and regions.
Studies have shown that the death rate and disease incidence caused by diet structure in China is much higher than that of the United States, which has a high-sugar and high-oil diet, and the death rate caused by it ranks first in the world.
The study primarily analyzed the intake of each diet, the size of the diet’s effect on disease endpoints, and the level of intake associated with the lowest risk of death. Diet-attributable deaths and DALYs were calculated for each disease outcome by using disease-specific population-attributable fractions, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs).
Overall, 11 million deaths and 255 million DALYs were attributable to dietary risk factors in 2017. High sodium intake, low intake of whole grains, and low intake of fruit are the leading dietary risk factors for death and DALYs globally and in many countries.
Specifically, “The Lancet” criticized China twice in the original article. According to statistics in 2017, China’s death rate from cardiovascular disease and cancer due to diet structure problems are among the top 20 most populous countries in the world. number one.
However, Japan, which is also in East Asia, has the lowest all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and diabetes mortality caused by the diet structure.
High sodium intake, low whole grain intake, and low fruit intake
The most subversive conclusion is that the biggest killer is not sugar and fat, but the high sodium intake, low intake of whole grains and low intake of fruit in the Chinese diet.
The top three are high salt, low miscellaneous grains and low fruit
In 2017, 3 million people died due to high sodium intake, 3 million people died from eating too little grains, and 2 million people died from too little fruit intake. Nearly 20% of global deaths were due to dietary problems As a result, in China, this ratio is even higher.
On the other hand, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages rank low in the death contribution.
In this regard, “The Lancet” gave dietary advice, and directly attached the recommended amounts of various foods in the article.
Reduce salt in food. Most of the dietary sodium intake comes from table salt. The “Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents” recommends that the daily intake of salt be less than 6 grams, and the “Lancet” has stricter requirements, and believes that the optimal standard is about 3 grams.
Increase fruit intake. The dietary guidelines recommend that Chinese adults should consume 200-400 grams of fruit per day. About an apple a day with an orange or banana, or 200 grams of grapes plus a Sydney.
He also emphasized that insist on eating every day, the more colorful the fruit, the better, and try to eat as little fruit as possible at night.
Miscellaneous grains replace polished rice and white flour. 125 grams of miscellaneous grains per day does not seem like a lot, but it is surprising that there are huge differences between regions of the world.
In conclusion, this study provides a comprehensive picture of the potential impact of diet on NCD mortality and morbidity, highlighting the need to improve diets in all countries.