KOMPAS.com – The Islamic Mataram Kingdom or Mataram Sultanate is an Islamic kingdom on the island of Java that ruled from the 16th century to the 18th century.
The Islamic Mataram Kingdom was founded by Sutawijaya whose original name was Danang Sutowijoyo in 1582 AD.
Sutawijaya appointed himself as sultan with the name Panembahan Senopati. Worshiping Senopati with the title of Senopati in Alaga Sayidin Panatagama.
Islamic Mataram Kingdom
The Succession of the Islamic Mataram Kingdom
The Islamic Mataram Kingdom reached its peak of greatness during the reign of Sultan Agung.
Sultan Agung, whose real name is Raden Mas Jatmika, ruled from 1613-1645 AD.
During the reign of Sultan Agung, the territory of the Islamic Mataram Kingdom covered Central Java, East Java and parts of West Java.
During its heyday, the Islamic Mataram Kingdom succeeded in conquering the coastal areas of Surabaya and Madura.
Sultan Agung brought the Islamic Kingdom of Mataram to a higher cultural civilization.
This was because the Islamic Mataram Kingdom had various expertise, namely in the military, economic, political, social and cultural fields.
In the political and military fields, Sultan Agung was the first local ruler to fight against the Dutch on a large scale through the VOC (Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie) trade partnership.
Sultan Agung’s resistance to the VOC took place in 1628 and 1629.
The reason for this resistance was that Sultan Agung realized that the presence of the VOC in Batavia could endanger the hegemony of Mataram power in Java.
The presence of the VOC would also hamper the spread of Islam in Java which was being carried out by Sultan Agung.
In the economic field, Sultan Agung has policies in agriculture, fiscal and monetary.
Sultan Agung built the agricultural sector by giving land to farmers and forming a communication forum for coaching.
One of the efforts is to move Central Java residents to Karawang, West Java. Where the area has wide and fertile rice fields and fields.
In fiscal affairs, Sultan Agung regulates tax regulations that do not burden the people.
In the monetary sector, Sultan Agung created financial institutions to manage royal funds.
Also read: Kings of the Islamic Mataram Kingdom
In the field of religion and Islamic law, the Sultan Agung established rules in accordance with Islamic rules.
Scholars are also given space to work together with the government.
Sultan Agung set the Javanese calendar or calendar since 1633, the calculation is a combination of the Saka and Hijri calendars.
Sultan Agung is one of the leaders whose role is to promote culture and arts.
According to various historical sources, several types of dance, gamelan and wayang developed rapidly during the reign of Sultan Agung.
Sultan Agung also participated in producing the Gendhing Literary Fibers.
Language literature also developed at that time, when Sultan Agung began to apply the use of language levels outside Yogyakarta to East Java.
Sultan Agung was also the leader who initiated the formation of the province and chose the duke as the head of the area controlled by Islamic Mataram.
King of Mataram Islamic Kingdom
Panembahan Senopati or Sutawijaya, the founder of the Islamic Mataram Kingdom.
- Danang Sutawijaya or Senopati Worship (1586-1601 AD)
Danang Sutawijaya or Penembahan Senopati was the founder and first king of the Islamic Kingdom of Mataram.
Panembahan Senopati ruled from 1586 to 1601 AD.
His reign was marked by various wars to gain territory.
- Raden Mas Jolang or Sultan Anyakrawati (1601-1613 AD)
Raden Mas Jolang who has the title of Sultan Anyakrawati is the son of Panembahan Senopati.
Raden Mas Jolang ruled Padda from 1601 to 1613 AD.
During his reign, many regents in East Java wanted to break away.
Mas Jolang took the form of subduing the rebellion. But before succeeding, he died in battle in the Krapyak area.
- Raden Mas Rangsang or Sultan Agung (1613-1645 AD)
Raden Mas Rangsang who is better known by the title Sultan Agung Hanyakrakusuma Senapati Ing Alaga Ngabdurrahman Kalifatullah.
Under the leadership of Sultan Agung, the Mataram Islamic Kingdom reached the peak of success.
Mataram has progressed in various fields so that the people live in prosperity.
- Raden Mas Sayidin or Amangkurat I (1646-1677 AD)
Raden Mas Sayidin was crowned as the successor to Sultan Agung who holds Amangkurat I.
Unfortunately, Amangkurat I was very lenient towards the Dutch so that the Islamic Mataram Kingdom experienced many setbacks.
One of them is that the kingdom’s territory became narrower due to the forced acquisition by the Dutch.
This happened as a reward for Dutch intervention in the disputes within the royal family.
Author: Widya Lestari Ningsih | Editors: Nibras Nada Nailufar and Silmi Nurul Utami
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