The income, employment and life expectancy gaps in Spain

Countless socio-economic gaps reveals the report published this morning by the National Institute of Statistics (INE). The first, the one that exists in income levels between the richest and poorest municipalities in Spain. And then those that derive from it or those that underlie it, ranging from unemployment to life expectancy itself.

The data, published today, refer to the year 2017 in the chapter on income and evaluate municipalities with more than 20,000 inhabitants. Among them, the richest is Pozuelo de Alarcón (Madrid), with an average annual income per inhabitant of 25,903 euros. Next, although with 5,000 euros less per year, Getxo (Vizcaya) and Boadilla del Monte (Madrid), where annual per capita income exceeds 20,100 euros. Then there are Sant Cugat del Vallès (Barcelona), Majadahonda, las Rozas and Torrelodones, these last three from Madrid, with between 19,000 and 20,000 euros per year. Other three Madrid municipalities follow in the ranking: Alcobendas, Tres Cantos and Villaviciosa.

The towns with the highest income, therefore, are located mainly in the Community of Madrid.

And Madrid and Barcelona also concentrate the ten neighborhoods with the highest average annual net income per inhabitant in Spain. In El Viso (Madrid), this heading exceeds 43,319 euros, while in Recoletos (Madrid) it exceeds 40,000 euros. In Barcelona, ​​the richest neighborhood is Pedralbes, with average per capita income of 33,375 euros.

At the opposite end of the ranking, by municipalities, we find Níjar (Almería), where the average income per inhabitant is 6,755 euros per year, 3.8 times below the average income of Pozuelo and 6.4 times less than in the richest neighborhood in Spain, El Viso.

Next are Los Palacios and Villafranca (Seville) and Vícar (Almería) with just over 7,000 euros a year of average income.

But if we go down a notch, to the neighborhoods, the annual incomes of the poorest are even lower: the two with the lowest incomes are Sevillians, Polígono Sur and Los Pajaritos and Amate, and In them the income is 5,112 and 5,516 euros per year, respectively. And the average per capita income of a district of Alicante (in which the Juan XXIII neighborhood is located) and of another Sevillian (Colores / Entreparques) does not reach 6,000 per year.

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This means that in the richest neighborhood in Spain the annual income is around eight times higher than that registered in the poorest.

Unemployment and activity rate

Inequality is also very high when it comes to unemployment. So, The municipality with the highest unemployment rate is Linares (Jaén), with 30.9% in this case for the year 2019. Other municipalities with unemployment above 25% that year were La Línea de la Concepción (Cádiz), Córdoba, Alcalá de Guadaíra (Seville), Huelva, Melilla, Jerez de la Frontera (Cádiz), Sanlúcar de Barradema (Cádiz) or Telde (Gran Canaria). At the opposite extreme was the richest municipality in Spain, Pozuelo de Alarcón, with an unemployment rate of 5.6%. Next, two other Madrid municipalities, Majadahonda, Las Rozas, and another from Barcelona, ​​Sant Cugat del Vallés, all three with an unemployment rate of 6.3%.

Therefore, the difference between the municipality with the most unemployment in Spain and the one with the lowest unemployment rate is more than 25 percentage points.

In the activity rate, the differences are also abysmal: it ranges between 72.1% in Rivas-Vaciamadrid and 50.7% in León. The activity rate is the quotient between the active population and the population of working age or over 16 years of age. Round rates of 70% also in other Madrid cities, such as Valdemoro or Parla and does not reach 51% in Ferrol and Cádiz.

Life expectancy and birth rate

Life expectancy at birthIn five municipalities, the five from Madrid, three of them among the richest in Spain, he was over 85 years old in 2017: Pozuelo de Alarcón, Majadahonda, Rivas-Vaciamadrid, Alcorcón and Las Rozas.

At the opposite extreme, there is a municipality, La Línea de la Concepción, where life expectancy does not reach 80 years: stands at 79.5 years. Meanwhile, in Ceuta, Melilla, Cádiz, Algeciras (Cádiz) and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, he is between 80 and 81 years old.

In terms of natality, the report also includes that although in Melilla there are 2.27 children per woman, on average, in San Cristóbal de La Laguna (Tenerife) and in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, the ratio does not reach 1. While in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria is stuck with one child per woman, and slightly above this figure, in Gijón and Telde (Gran Canaria).

Where does industry weigh the most? And services?

The report also makes an analysis of the dominant activity in each of the functional urban areas, that is, the main cities together with their metropolitan areas of influence. These are indicators corresponding to the year 2018.

In this sense, the urban area in which the industry weighs the most is Avilés (Asturias). Manufacturing there account for 28.7% of employment. Next are Alcoy (Alicante) and Sagunto (Valencia), where the industry accounts for 23.8% and 23.1% of employment, respectively. In Palencia, Burgos and Manresa more than 20% of the workforce is also engaged in manufacturing activity.

On the opposite side is Marbella, where the proportion of employment dedicated to industrial activity barely reaches 2.9%, followed by Mérida (3.1%), Almería, Benidorm and Torrevieja, with figures that also do not reach four percentage points.

Mérida is, on the other hand, the place where services weigh the most in employment, with 91.3%, followed by Toledo, with almost 91%. Also, more than 85% of those employed represent the tertiary sector for Benidorm, León, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Girona, Malaga, Alicante and Madrid.

On the other side of the table are Avilés or Lorca, although in no case does the proportion of employees in services drop below 60%.

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