Written by Mervat Rashad
Sunday, 04 June 2023 02:00 AM
Tobacco consumption can lead to life-threatening consequences for smokers as well as those exposed for smoking Indirect, it can negatively affect the lungs, heart, throat, and neck, causing cancerous tumors, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Moreover, smoking can also negatively affect an individual’s reproductive function. In women, Active and passive smoking can have harmful effects on the reproductive organs and their functions, and here is the effect of smoking on the ovaries and pregnancy, according to the “ndtv” website.
The negative impact of smoking on female reproductive health
The effect on the ovaries
Hormonal imbalance: In the human body, the secretion of one hormone is regulated by the secretion of another. Chemicals present in tobacco products such as cigarettes disrupt the function of the glands responsible for reproductive hormones; This includes the thyroid gland, pituitary gland, and adrenal glands. This disorder increases levels of a stress hormone called cortisol and a male hormone, testosterone. In females, elevated cortisol and testosterone have been linked to infertility in women. The amount of hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, anti-Mueller hormone (AMH), and prolactin decreases. , which negatively affects fertility.
Ovarian and Menstrual Diseases: It is widely known that hormonal imbalance caused by smoking contributes to ovarian and menstrual disorders. Natural is difficult. Low levels of estrogen and progesterone also lead to irregular menstruation.
Menopause: Menopause refers to the complete cessation of the menstrual cycle, and it usually occurs in the late forties to fifties in females. It indicates the depletion of the eggs available for ovulation. Smoking accelerates the rate of damage to the eggs in the ovaries, which reduces their numbers and causes early menopause.
effect on pregnancy
Smoking affects both the initial stages of pregnancy and the development of pregnancy.
Pregnancy complications: Female smokers are more likely to have an ectopic pregnancy (implantation of the embryo outside the uterus), spontaneous abortion, and miscarriage.
Fetal development: Carbon monoxide is produced when smoking is known to cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, it stunts the growth of the fetus in the womb, which leads to growth restriction and an increased possibility of premature birth. Moreover, smoking during pregnancy can cause damage to the lungs and brain tissue.
Genetic abnormalities and birth defects: The negative effect of smoking on egg quality can lead to fertilized eggs with genetic abnormalities such as Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Klinefelt syndrome. Female smokers are more likely to give birth to children with cleft lip or cleft palate.
Postpartum complications: Babies born to female smokers often have low birth weights, even at full term, and are more likely to develop health complications and disabilities as they grow, including obesity, diabetes, asthma, and cardiovascular disease.
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