The Gulf of California, National Sea (IV)

In the eighteenth century the creation of the integrative backbone of California is accomplished with missions ranging from Cabo San Lucas, Los Angeles, San Francisco and Monterrey, these were the basis for the creation of countries, cities like the Los Angeles mission. , California and San Francisco in the United States.

Of great importance was the evangelizing work of the Society of Jesus, to them we owe the total dominion of the Spanish crown of the Peninsula and the waters of the Gulf. Philip V was able to exercise complete sovereignty including the Sea of ​​Cortez according to the certificate issued on November 13, 1744, also ordering the organization of an army to materialize its possession from the Port of Matanchén or Valle de Banderas, currently Puerto Vallarta for reasons of security against invasions, pirates, buccaneers, privateers, unfaithful Indians, also planning to populate the Marías Islands facing today’s Nayarit.

Jesuit missionary work included teaching arts and crafts to indigenous groups, promoting agriculture, livestock farming, as well as grape crops that would be used for winemaking, other species such as beans, chickpeas, wheat and other cereals, these would serve to provide for the needs of the isolated population.

Another Jesuit enterprise was the construction of their own ships, in the face of the Viceroyalty’s refusal to support them, in 1721 they managed to cross the entire Gulf with their own ships, confirming once again the union of the peninsula with the Continent not allowing anyone else to navigate these waters, which since then were considered the Gulf as a Spanish sea.

In total they created 18 missions, establishing the true monopoly of Spanish government whose original holder was the king of Spain according to the royal decree of Charles II (February 5, 1697).

In 1767 the Society of Jesus was expelled from all domains of the Spanish crown. The missions of Baja California remained in the hands of the Franciscans, at the head of which he was Friar Junipero Serra, the pious fund passed into the hands of the governors of the peninsula by order of Charles III, the departure of the Jesuits caused confusion, looting, insecurity and a phase of impoverishment.

On February 3, 1768 the 16 Jesuits who maintained the Californian missions were expelled without money, without food, wearing only the clothes they wore, the legacy of Father Kino and his companions in the Peninsula was enormous, in the midst of loneliness and poverty has left huge contributions to the future. The palace deliveries had a heeded effect Charles III who ordered the expulsion of the Jesuits from all the Spanish kingdoms, succeeding the Franciscans of California.

Two great figures are essential to the Spanish expansion in California, Mr. José de Galvez y Friar Junipero Serra, bulwarks to defend the lands conquered by foreign powers, the Spanish government studied the possibility of a union between Russia and Spain against England that aspired to the position of the seas and the peninsula, Fray Junípero Serra arrived in Loreto on 1 April 1768.


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