Under Friday, June 24, the book of history records, among other things:
1497: First recorded discovery of North America: Italian navigator Giovanni Caboto reaches Labrador and lands on Cape Breton Island.
1717: The merger of four London building huts (lodges) created the first grand lodge in the history of Freemasonry.
1812: Without a prior declaration of war, Napoleon I crossed the Memel with an army of 450,000 men and began the war against Russia.
1917: The first “surrealist” play, Guillaume Apollinaire’s “The Breasts of Tiresias”, premieres in Paris.
1922: German Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau is shot dead by two right-wing extremists on the way to his office in Berlin.
1937: The German Reich Minister of War, Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg, issues an “Instruction for the Uniform War Preparation of the Wehrmacht” (Otto as a special case).
1942: In North Africa, German-Italian units take Fort Capuzzo, Sollum and Halfaya and reach Sidi al Barrani.
1947: Ernst Reuter (SPD) is elected mayor of Berlin with the votes of the SPD, CDU and LDP, but initially cannot take office because of an objection from the Soviet city commander.
1967: The Felbertauernstraße between Salzburg and East Tyrol will be opened to traffic with a 5.6 km long road tunnel. This means there is a winter-proof connection between Mittersill and Matrei.
1967: Pope Paul VI publishes his encyclical “Sacerdotalis caelibatus” on the celibacy of Catholic priests.
1977: Laying of the foundation stone for the reconstruction of the Dresden Semperoper.
1982: Frenchman Jean-Loup Chrétien is the first Western European to fly into space with Soviet cosmonauts.
1992: Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Georgian Head of State Eduard Shevardnadze agree on a ceasefire for the Autonomous Republic of South Ossetia in Georgia, which is fighting to be annexed to Russia, and on the establishment of a peacekeeping force.
2002: In an eagerly awaited Middle East speech, US President George W. Bush advocates the establishment of a Palestinian state within temporary borders.
2002: The Constitutional Court annulled the controversial § 209, which makes sexual contact between men over 19 and men under 18 a punishable offence.
2002: The Albanian parliament elects ex-defense minister Alfred Moisiu as the new president, replacing Rexhep Meidani in office.
2012: The last known Galapagos giant tortoise, Lonesome George, dies at the Charles Darwin Foundation, where it has been housed since 1972. She was around 100 years old. Several attempts were made at the Santa Cruz Island research station to obtain the “Lonesome Georges” genes by mating with female giant tortoises, but the attempts were unsuccessful.
birthdays: William IV the Wise, Landgrave of Hesse (1532-1592); Friedrich Löffler, German bacteriologist (1852-1915); Victor Adler, Austria politician (1852-1918); Carl Diem, German sports scientist/author (1882-1962); Ferdinand Frr. v. Cles, German writer/journalist (1907-1982); Herbert Jaros, Austria APA journalist (1917-2006); Anneliese Römer, German actress (1922-2003); Martin L. Perl, US physicist, Nobel Prize 1995 (1927-2014); David McTaggart, Canada. contractors and environmentalists; co-founder and first chairman of Greenpeace International (1932-2001); George Gruntz, Switzerland. composer (1932-2013); Gerhard Roth, Austria writer (1942-2022); Mick Fleetwood, British rock musician (1947); Christine Neubauer, German actress (1962); Robbie McEwen, Australia. Ex-cyclist (1972); Lionel Messi, argent. Footballer (1987); David Alaba, Austria Soccer Player (1992).
days of death: Winrich von Kniprode, grand master d. Teutonic Order (c. 1310-1382); Walther Rathenau, German industrialist/politician (1867-1922); Willy Franzl, Austria dance teacher (1898-1982); Pierre Werner, Luxembourg. Prime Minister (1913-2002); Brian Keith, US actor (1921-1997).
name days: John the Baptist, Rumold, Reingard, Irimbert, Hannes, Jens, Sepp, Iwan, Jan, Wilhelm.