Original title: Chinese astronaut crew completes on-orbit handover
The Dongfeng landing site is waiting for the return of the Shenzhou 15 astronauts from space
The astronaut crews of Shenzhou 15 and Shenzhou 16 held a handover ceremony yesterday (2nd). The reporter learned from the China Manned Space Engineering Office that the crew of the Shenzhou 15 astronauts have completed all the scheduled tasks and will return to the Dongfeng landing site on the Shenzhou 15 manned spacecraft tomorrow. The landing site and the participating systems are ready to welcome the astronauts back home. During the in-orbit period, the Shenzhou 15th crew successfully completed 4 out-of-vehicle missions, becoming the crew that has performed the most out-of-vehicle missions so far. In addition, they have also carried out multiple payload out-of-cabin missions and a number of space science experiments (experiments), and obtained valuable experimental data.
The reporter learned from the meteorological team of Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center yesterday that according to the latest weather forecast data, the landing site area during the return period of the spacecraft is cloudy, the ground wind force is 3-4, and the meteorological conditions meet the return requirements. Prepare, and wait for the return of the 15th astronaut from space.
How do astronauts cross the “black barrier”?
In the process of returning to the earth by the Shenwu 15 crew, when the return capsule of the spacecraft enters the atmosphere, it will enter the “black barrier” area. At this time, due to high temperature friction, the surface of the entire return capsule will form a plasma. The ground lost contact.
An active measurement and control team affiliated to the Xi’an Satellite Measurement and Control Center has been tracking, measuring and controlling non-stop for many days to ensure that the astronauts of God 15 can safely pass through the “black barrier” on their way back.
The active measurement and control unit code-named “Yellow River” has been stationed in Hotan, Xinjiang, more than 1,600 kilometers away from the Dongfeng landing site. This time, the Shenzhou 15 manned spacecraft returned. As a key node in the return measurement and control mission, they are responsible for the return capsule. Tracking measurement and emergency remote control work.
Qi Jinshi, a measurement and control technician at an activity station of the Xi’an Satellite Measurement and Control Center, introduced: “Our equipment is mainly responsible for the last period of measurement and control tasks before the manned spacecraft enters the ‘black barrier’. After the spacecraft enters the ‘black barrier’, the ground will lose the signal of the return cabin. At this time, we need to establish a two-way voice channel between the spaceship and the ground as soon as possible by means of antenna digital recapture and other means to ensure the safe landing of the spaceship. In normal times, we will also repeatedly train the operation process of recapturing targets to achieve faster and faster Accurate, more stable.”
As early as 1999, this team on wheels formed an indissoluble bond with the manned spaceflight project due to the Shenzhou-1 mission. Since then, they have become a key stop to ensure the safe return of the Shenzhou spacecraft. Over the past 24 years, they have successfully completed all manned spacecraft return measurement and control tasks. At present, as the space station turns into normal orbital operation, their persistence here has also become a norm.
What kind of work did God accomplish in the fifteenth day?
The 15th team of God has been working and living in orbit for half a year, and is about to return to the home of the earth. What kind of work did they accomplish in the past six months? Huang Weifen, a researcher at the China Astronaut Research and Training Center and the chief designer of the astronaut system, introduced the mission completion of the 15th crew of God.
Huang Weifen said: “The 15th crew of God is about to return. They have successfully completed all the scheduled tasks and fully demonstrated the ability of well-trained astronauts. They are also in very good condition at present.”
Huang Weifen introduced that the crew of Shenzhou 15 successfully completed 4 out-of-vehicle missions while in orbit, and also carried out multiple load out-of-vehicle missions, 8 human factors engineering technology research, 28 aerospace medical experiments, and 38 space missions. Scientific experiments (tests) covered life ecology, material science, fluid mechanics, etc., and valuable experimental data were obtained.
Huang Weifen said: “At the same time, we have also collected and sorted out various data in the cabin, some of which are downlinked in real time during the process, and some are brought back to the ground by astronauts. The improvement of various equipment in the country has provided valuable information.”
In addition to a large amount of experimental data, the crew of Shenzhou 15 also accumulated valuable experience for subsequent manned flights.
Huang Weifen introduced: “I have gained experience in the long-term operation and maintenance management of the space station assembly, material management, station management, and maintenance and repair of various equipment, which has accumulated valuable experience and laid the foundation for us to carry out manned flights in the future. .Our design of the program of the out-of-vehicle activities, the coordination mode, the coordination procedures, various plans, and the crew’s out-of-vehicle activity manual, etc., can basically be solidified.”
As the “Dream Realization Crew”, the Shenzhou 15 astronaut crew not only fulfilled their own dream of flying into space, but also handed in a satisfactory “Dream Realization” answer sheet for the motherland and the people.
What will the crew bring back to Earth this time?
The three astronauts of the crew of Shenzhou 15 are about to return to the earth. At the same time, they will bring back the materials recovered from some experimental projects completed by the crew during the orbit for further research by scientists. The space station has entered the stage of application and development. More scientific experiments will be carried out in our national space laboratory, and more experimental materials will be returned to the ground with the Shenzhou spacecraft. In the future, Shenzhou spacecraft will further improve the “carrying” capability of the return capsule by optimizing the structure and upgrading equipment.
In addition to transporting astronauts, the Shenzhou spacecraft is also a tool for “carrying goods” between heaven and earth. The cargo spacecraft can only “carry goods” up, but cannot “bring goods” back, and the Shenzhou spacecraft can realize the round trip between heaven and earth, but because the Shenzhou spacecraft can only return to the earth in the return capsule, the ability to “carry goods” is limited, and the development team plans to follow-up optimization The functionality of the spaceship expands the ability of the spaceship to carry cargo.
Gao Xu, the overall chief designer of the manned spacecraft system of the Fifth Academy of Aerospace Science and Technology Group, said: “At present, our manned spacecraft has the ability to ascend 300 kilograms and descend 50 kilograms. Has the ceiling of this capability been reached? In fact, there is still potential. Follow-up If the space layout can be further optimized to free up more space for loading the uplink and downlink loads, then there is still room for further improvement in the uplink and downlink capabilities.”
The space in the return cabin of the Shenzhou spacecraft is relatively small, and space for the astronauts to move is required. Therefore, the cargo that can be brought back from the space station by the Shenzhou spacecraft is very precious. Gao Xu said that in the future, the Shenzhou spacecraft plans to improve the “carrying” capability of the return capsule through structural optimization and equipment upgrades.
Gao Xu introduced: “The core is to allow us to further increase the space for loading downlink loads. Further work can be done in terms of layout optimization, equipment upgrades, and miniaturization. If we can further improve the downlink capability of the return capsule, then It is of great significance to the entire space station project.”
How is Dongfeng Landing Field prepared?
The Dongfeng Landing Site is located in the hinterland of the Badain Jaran Desert. It is early summer, and the cold air is relatively active. The spacecraft’s return capsule opens its parachute until it lands. The wind direction and speed are important meteorological elements that affect the accuracy of its landing point. It is understood that the minimum meteorological conditions for the return of the spacecraft require that the maximum wind speed at high altitude should not exceed 70 m/s, and the average wind speed on the ground should not exceed 15 m/s.
“We are conducting special weather forecast assessment training on the day when Shenzhou 15 returns. This is the fourth assessment in the past month.” Chen Feng, an engineer at the Meteorological Office of Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, said that in order to successfully guarantee Shenzhou 15 To return safely, the meteorological team of Dongfeng Landing Site selected several complex weather samples in June from the historical data for many years for random assessment, and the number of consultations was increased from once a day to two or three times a day to improve the familiarity with the complex weather samples of the month and forecasting capabilities.
In the early stage, the meteorological forecasting team developed a layered upper-altitude wind forecasting system and tested the forecasting effect to provide professional, accurate and fine upper-altitude wind forecasting for the spacecraft landing point forecast. The scientific and technical personnel for meteorological equipment support carry out technical status inspections on important equipment such as weather radars and data receiving and processing, to ensure that every received data is correct and every inspection is fully in place.
“According to the latest weather forecast data, the landing site area during the return period of the spacecraft will be cloudy, the ground wind force will be 3-4, and the weather conditions will meet the return requirements. We are confident, determined and capable of welcoming the astronauts of Shenzhou 15 to their triumphant return. “Said Kang Lin, deputy director of the Meteorological Office of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center.
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