scientists called the pros and cons

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The Russian Academy of Sciences recently during an online conference discussed the burning question: how is the development of vaccines for a new coronavirus infection. Although, she’s already six months. You can probably stop considering it new and start living, reckoning with it. Actually, the country’s best research institutes are trying to prepare us for such a life by developing a vaccine trap for sars-cov-2.

According to the president of the RAS academician Alexander Sergeeva, 150 different organizations, including institutes and companies, are working on the preparation of a vaccine from COVID-19. More than 10 confirmed – the preclinical trials have been completed, and they are ready to begin clinical testing. But we all now care about two key issues – the timing of the vaccine and its safety. Here are the most promising, in the opinion of scientists, developments.

Developer: Federal Research Center for Research and Development of Immunobiological Preparations M.P. Chumakova.

Vaccine: On the basis of attenuated and inactivated viruses (live attenuated vaccine), the causative agents of a new coronavirus infection are being developed.

An attenuated vaccine is one in which the pathogen is weakened and has lost its pathogenic properties. However, it can multiply in the body and cause immunity in it.

An inactivated vaccine is one in which viruses (or bacteria) were grown and then killed.

The vaccine is represented by a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, professor, Director General of the Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immunobiological Preparations M.P. Chumakova RAS Aidar Ishmukhametov.

Why exactly a live attenuated virus vaccine?

– We do not understand today what structure of a complex virion (a particle consists of nucleic acid is covered with a protective protein shell – approx. Ed.) determines the decisive role in the formation of the immune response, and this is the most important question, ”says Aidar Ishmukhametov, the head of the Chumakov center. – A purely practical thing – for inactivated vaccine, we have worked out the technology with experience. I am sure that an inactivated vaccine is the near future, and vector vaccines (in which a foreign gene is built into the virus – approx. Ed.), This will be the second echelon, more profiled and accurate. But its possibility will arise when we will definitely understand what is happening with the vaccine.

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The scientist said that it is still not clear what immune response arises to coronavirus.

– We still have not figured out the antibodies. Because with a serious illness we sometimes see them, sometimes we don’t see them, ”says Aydar Ishmukhametov. – Today we do not know the answers to the most important questions: how will the disease develop further? We do not know the answer to the key question, how much vaccine do we need to stop the pandemic? The issue of the formation of population immunity is not clear. If we have been working out population immunity to polio for 50 years, until it reaches 95 – 96%, which it should be, otherwise the likelihood of an epidemic increases, then here we do not understand how long it will take.

However, the Chumakov center is set up seriously; it is planned to produce about 7-10 million doses per year. Although testing the vaccine in humans is likely to be necessary in the field.

– Since virtually all developers now exclude for themselves the fourth phase of testing the vaccine (using hundreds of patients) in order to see the immunity protectiveness (how the immunity works), apparently, all the same, after registration, we will have to come to this against the background pharmacovigilance (a study identifying side effects and other problems of the drug), and this is the main question. In some limited regions, we will measure how the severity of the disease progresses, the incidence rate in general, with the use of this drug, ”said the head of the Chumakova research center.

Developer: National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology N.F. Gamalei.

Vaccine: inactivated (live attenuated) vaccine against COVID-19.

The vaccine is: Deputy Director of the National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology named after N.F. Gamalei Denis Logunov.

“There was not much choice for us which vaccine to work on, since we already had an effective scheme for the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), we simply copied it,” says Denis Logunov. – We replaced the glycosoprotein C of the coronavirus MERS with the full-sized glycoprotein SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. We have accumulated industrial batches, which are transferred to preclinical trials. The high safety to date of our vaccine has been shown. No allergenic or toxic effects were detected. Currently, rodent tests have been completed and safety testing on primates is ongoing.

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According to Denis Logunov, the results of the vaccine are very good: immunity arises. The transition to the second stage of clinical trials is planned; the beginning of these trials will start in June – July of this year. The effectiveness of the vaccine will be tested on rodents, hamsters and two species of primates, common marmosets and rhesus monkeys.

– Why can not stop on any one vaccine against coronavirus?

– My personal opinion is that you need to try different vaccines. Their effectiveness will be shown by the future. Whole-verion vaccines (an option that the Chumakov Institute is developing) currently have neither positive nor negative characteristics for me in relation to our development, simply because they also did not pass the full test cycle. No one knows how effective or how long these vaccines are. How long immunity will cause.

But a live inactivated vaccine has one rather big minus: its production is work with dangerous pathogens. Only a very limited number of centers in Of Russia and the world could produce such a vaccine.

Developer: Institute of Experimental Medicine

Vaccine: SARS-CoV-2 recombinant strain vaccine based on a live influenza vaccine strain

The vaccine is presented by the head of the Department of Virology. A.A. Smorodintseva Institute of Experimental Medicine, professor, WHO expert Larisa Rudenko

– By the end of the year preclinical trials will be completed, the vaccine will be sent to two viruses at once – influenza and SARS-CoV-2, – Larisa Rudenko talks about the benefits of the drug. – If this new coronavirus becomes a seasonal strain, this will complicate the work of healthcare, since it will be practically the same period with the influenza virus, so the creation of such multivalent vaccines, including both influenza and SARS-CoV-2, will be a very important element for the new vaccine prophylaxis strategy for acute respiratory infections.

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– Why it is impossible to choose the most promising direction in the development of vaccines and focus on it?

– It seems to me that we now need to go along the path of developing several types of vaccines. Because we do not know what type of vaccines will be most relevant for this strain. The second, which is important, a differentiated approach to different groups of the population is possible. It is possible that one vaccine will be effective for the elderly, the other will be effective for a healthy adult population, for people at increased risk of infection, such as medical workers, the military and other categories, so the development of various types of vaccines is relevant.

Intranasal administration of the device (nasal injection – approx. Ed.) Facilitates the use of the vaccine throughout the health system.

– What are the benefits of an influenza virus vaccine?

– The effectiveness of this vaccine (specifically for influenza – approx. Ed.) Is shown in many clinical trials, in addition, it is used in healthcare practice. There is mass production of such vaccines, and not only in our country, it is produced in the United States. Such a vaccine is used in many European countries.

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