Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Limit Sugar, Salt, and Fat

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Anna Maria Tri Anggraini
Deputy Chairman of the Research and Development Commission of the National Consumer Protection Agency (BPKN)

SUGAR, salt, and fat (GGL) is widely consumed by the people of Indonesia. Consumption of sugar, salt, and excess fat can increase a person’s risk of suffering from non-communicable diseases (PTM). The World Health Organization (WHO) states that 66% of the causes of death in Indonesia are caused by non-communicable diseases and have a fairly high risk of death. This 66% figure consists of cardiovascular diseases (arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, deep vein thrombosis), cancer, diabetes, kidney, stroke and heart and other non-communicable diseases.

Currently, PTM is a crucial thing and needs special attention. Factors causing PTM include unhealthy eating patterns, smoking, lack of physical activity, and an unhealthy lifestyle.

In the age group 56 to 65 years consuming the highest salt and fat, while the age group 40 to 45 years consuming the highest sugar. The female sex tends to consume a lot of sugar, salt and fat which is higher than the male. If you consume high GGL, you need special attention, because too much can cause various non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and chronic diabetes mellitus whose prevalence in Indonesia is increasing.

The percentage of risk factors for public consumption that causes PTM death in Indonesia includes consumption of sweetened soft drinks, high consumption of red meat, high consumption of trans fats, less consumption of vegetables, less consumption of fiber, less consumption of fruit, and high consumption of salt. The trend of hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease in Indonesia is increasing according to the 2018 Ministry of Health Riskesdas Data as much as Hypertension (34.1%), Stroke (10.9%), Diabetes (2%), and Chronic Kidney (3.8%).

Information and Needs for Sugar, Salt, and Fat
The content of sugar, salt, and fat (GGL) can be seen by consumers on food packaging by reading the information on the product packaging label before buying food or drinks. The table on the packaging will inform the nutritional value of the product including the amount of sugar, salt, and fat content. The total level of GGL in food and beverage packaging is stated in the Nutritional Value Information (ING) with the value of the number of servings per package.

Based on the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) regarding the rules for consuming GGL per day, the reference for sugar consumption is based on age, adults not more than 30 grams (7 teaspoons) per day, children (7-10 years) not more than 24 grams ( 6 teaspoons) per day, and children 2-6 years no more than 19 grams (4 teaspoons) per day. The maximum limit for salt consumption for ages less than 1 year is 1 gram per day, 1-3 years at 2 grams per day, 4-6 years at 3 grams (1/2 teaspoon) per day 7-10 years at 5 grams per day. days, and 11 years and over by 6 grams (1 teaspoon) per day. The reference for daily fat consumption is 5 tablespoons (67 grams) for children and adults.

Obligation to Include GGL Information
Food and beverage industry players in Indonesia are required to include health messages, in accordance with Article 4 of the Regulation of the Minister of Health Number 30 of 2013 concerning Inclusion of Information on Sugar, Salt, and Fat Content as well as Health Messages for Processed Foods and Ready-to-Serve Foods. The Health Message contains information that consumption of sugar more than 50 grams, sodium more than 2000 milligrams, or total fat more than 67 grams per person per day is at risk of hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and heart attack.

Based on Permenkes Number 30 of 2013 Article 9, there are sanctions for products that do not include EGG information on the packaging. In fact, the application of these sanctions has not been carried out by regional offices. For example, in the cities of South Tangerang and Semarang, there are still many micro and small business actors (UMK) who do not include the amount of GGL and Information on Nutritional Value (ING) on their product packaging.

At the regional level, such as the City of Semarang, there has been no socialization regarding the obligation to include GGL information on product packaging. Monitoring of Nutritional Value Information (ING) and health messages has also not been carried out. Socialization to consumers regarding GGL information is also still lacking. Small and medium-scale business actors only have P-IRT in the package. In the process of issuing a PIRT (Home Industry Food) permit, until now there is no obligation to include the value of GGL in the product label as one of the requirements in accordance with applicable regulations.

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