Physicists accidentally make a new discovery about black holes

Given that our first direct discovery confirms the existence black hole That only happened in this century, and humanity could be forgiven for not knowing a few things about these mysterious cosmic matters.

We don’t even know everything we don’t know – facts clarified in new discoveries. Running the equations to correct for quantum gravity on the entropy of black holes, a pair of physicists discovered that black holes exert pressure on the space around them.

Not much pressure, of course – but it’s a payoff that goes with it Stephen HawkingHe predicted that black holes emit radiation, and thus not only have temperature, but also shrink slowly over time, without increasing.

“Our finding that a Schwarzschild black hole has both pressure and temperature is even more interesting considering it is quite surprising.” Physicist and astronomer Xavier Calmette said: from the University of Sussex in England.

“If you think of black holes only inside General relativity, one can show that they have a singularity at their center where the laws of physics as we know it must be broken.

“It is hoped that when quantum field theory is incorporated into general relativity, we may be able to find new descriptions of black holes.”

When they made their discovery, Calmette and colleagues at the University of Sussex, physicist and astronomer Volkert Kuipers, made calculations using quantum field theory to try to explore the event horizon of black holes.

In particular, they tried to understand the fluctuations in the black hole’s event horizon that corrected for its fluctuations can not, which is a measure of progress from order to chaos.

While making these calculations, Calmet and Kuipers continued to look for additional numbers that appeared in their equations, but it took them a while to understand what they were seeing – pressure.

“The moment we dropped the pins when we realized that the mysterious results in our equations were telling us that the black hole we were studying was under stress – after months of struggling with it – was very encouraging,” he said. Kuipers said.

It’s not clear what caused the stress, and according to the team’s calculations, it’s very small. Moreover, negative – is expressed as -2E-46The bar for the black hole is the mass of the Sun, compared to 1 Earth bar at sea level.

This means exactly what it means – black holes will shrink, not grow. This is consistent with Hawking’s prediction, although at this point it is impossible to determine how negative pressure is related to it Hawking Radiation, or even if the two phenomena are related.

However, the results could have interesting implications for our efforts to balance general relativity (at the macro scale) with quantum mechanics (operating at very small scales).

Black holes are believed to be the key to this endeavor. The singularity of a black hole is mathematically described as a one-dimensional point of extremely high density, at which point general relativity crumbles – but the gravitational field around it can only be described in relative terms.

Discovering how the two systems fit together can help solve the very difficult problem of black holes. According to general relativity, information hiding behind black holes can be lost forever. Under quantum mechanics, that’s impossible. This is The black hole information paradox, and exploring spacetime mathematically around a black hole can help solve it.

“Our work is a step in that direction,” he said deadAlthough the pressure exerted by the black holes we study is small, the fact that they exist opens up many new possibilities, including the study of astrophysics, particle physics, and quantum physics.

Search published in physical review d.

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