TEMPO.CO, Jakarta – Seafood will not make people deficient in protein. However, you may not get vitamin D and omega-3 which, among other things, come from fish and cause problems over time.
"Kekurangan vitamin D mengurangi penyerapan kalsium dan dapat berkontribusi pada osteoporosis, yang mengakibatkan tulang rapuh dan rentan patah," kata pakar diet dari International Food Information Council, Kris Sollid, seperti dikutip dari Livestrong.
Sebuah tinjauan pada Oktober 2018 dalam jurnal Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences menunjukkan kadar vitamin D yang rendah berhubungan dengan peningkatan risiko infeksi pernapasan akut. Menurut ahli diet sekaligus pendiri Nutrition Squeezed, Anna Brown, tak memasukkan ikan dalam menu harian bisa berarti menghilangkan satu-satunya sumber alami vitamin D untuk tubuh.
Vitamin D sendiri bagian komponen dari ikan berlemak yang sulit ditemukan dalam makanan lain. Untungnya, konsumsi kuning telur secara teratur dan mendapatkan paparan sinar matahari yang cukup bisa meningkatkan kadar serum vitamin D.
Some foods and drinks such as milk, cereals, and orange juice are often fortified with vitamin D. On the other hand, fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, sardines, are among the best sources of omega-3, an anti-inflammatory fat that has many health benefits.
“Fish is one of the main sources of EPA and DHA, a lower intake can result in a higher ratio of omega-6 and omega-3. The ideal ratio is 1:4 omega-3 to omega-6,” he said.
He says a higher ratio between these two omegas is sometimes associated with systemic inflammation as well as associated chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and autoimmune conditions.
“For those who are vegetarian or do not eat seafood for other reasons, I would recommend a non-fish omega-3 supplement made from seaweed or algae, or be sure to regularly eat chia seeds and walnuts,” explains Brown.
“Fish oil supplements can help if you can’t meet those recommendations. Finding the nutrients your body needs from food is usually the best way to go, but if that’s not possible, talk to your doctor to see if fish oil supplements are appropriate,” says Sollid.
Brown said the same thing. She says, “It’s okay not to eat seafood, but it’s important to supplement or eat alternative sources of omega-3s, calcium and vitamin D.”