Are you afraid of needles? The intranasal vaccines against covid-19 that are in development could be your solution; offer two additional layers of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection, according to experts in the field.
According to an article published in Medscape, intranasal vaccines could produce antibodies and attract other components of the immune system to the nose and upper respiratory tract, forming a first line of defense against infection.
Second, if an infection occurs, a local response in the nose may be faster than a systematic one, giving the SARS-CoV-2 virus less chance to replicate, spread, and spread to others.
“We’ll see how they fare in clinical trials, but research suggests that these types of vaccines should trigger a specialized immune response in the nasal passages that can help stop SARS-CoV-2 at the site of infection and reduce transmission. “said physician Troy D. Randall.
How do covid-19 vaccines work?
In accordance with Science magazineOf the seven SARS-CoV-2 vaccines being tested for intranasal administration, six are live attenuated or virus-vectorized vaccines and one is a protein subunit vaccine.
The authors, in the specialized journal, explained that attenuated virus vaccines and viral vectors encoding vaccine antigens are particularly useful for intranasal immunization because the infection process efficiently breaks down the epithelium and is inherently immunogenic.
Because infected cells express vaccine antigens, antigen presentation occurs and effectively triggers vaccine antigens. CD8 + T cell responses.
What are the nasal covid vaccines?
Currently, seven nasal covid-19 vaccines are being developed, which are attenuated viruses, viral vectors and even other viruses, but which can provoke immunity to protect against this disease.
The best of both worlds?
According to Medscape, if one or more of the intranasal formulations of Covid-19 obtain authorization or approval for emergency use from the United States Food and Drug Administration, the ideal strategy could be combine intramuscular vaccination with an intranasal booster dose.
This combination of two vaccines could increase protection by targeting two immunoglobulin (Ig) immune responses.
“Intramuscular vaccination should elicit systemic or central immunity, which provides a robust circulating antibody (IgG) response in the blood. Intranasal vaccination should elicit mucous immunity in the nasal passages and will preferentially elicit an IgA antibody response, mainly in the ducts. nasal “. said Randall, a professor in the Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology in the Department of Medicine at the University of Alabama, in Birmingham, Alabama.