Diabetes. ©2012 Merdeka.com
Merdeka.com – Diabetes is a serious chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (a hormone that regulates blood sugar or glucose), or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.
Apart from cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus is also one of the main causes of kidney disease and blindness in under 65 years of age. Diabetes mellitus can also be a cause of amputation, disability, and death.
According to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), currently there are around 150 million people who have diabetes in all parts of the world. So do not be surprised, if diabetes is increasingly a concern because the number of sufferers continues to grow.
Meanwhile, most people with diabetes only find out about it when complications have occurred. One of the efforts to prevent the risk of developing diabetes is to know what the symptoms of the disease are.
By knowing the symptoms sooner, you can also treat them as early as possible. Check out the information about symptoms of diabetes mellitus which has been summarized by merdeka.com through liputan6.com and the Ministry of Health’s Infodatin.
Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus
Prediabetes or type 2 diabetes usually has no symptoms at first. Meanwhile, in type 1 diabetes, symptoms can develop quickly.
The common signs and symptoms of diabetes type 1 and type 2 are:
- Increased thirst and frequent urination
- Extreme hunger
- Lose weight for no reason
- Fatigue and blurred vision
- The wound healed for a long time
- Often experience infections, such as in the gums, skin, and vagina.
Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, usually appearing during childhood or adolescence. Type 2 diabetes is the more common type and can occur at any age, although it is more common in people over 40.
Causes of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is divided into several types such as type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, other types of diabetes that can arise due to hormonal, immunological, infectious or other genetic disorders.
Type 1 Diabetes
In type 1 diabetes, this usually occurs because the patient’s immune system attacks and destroys the pancreatic cells that produce insulin.
This results in an increase in blood glucose levels, resulting in damage to body organs. A person will be easier to experience type 1 diabetes if they have risk factors such as the following:
- Have a family history of type 1 diabetes.
- Suffering from a viral infection.
- Light-skinned people are thought to be more prone to type 1 diabetes than other races.
- Type 1 diabetes mostly occurs at the ages of 4-7 years and 10-14 years, although type 1 diabetes can appear at any age.
Type 2 Diabetes
Meanwhile, type 2 diabetes is a type of diabetes that occurs more often. This type of diabetes is caused by the body’s cells becoming less sensitive to insulin, so the insulin produced cannot be used properly.
In the case of type 2 diabetes, a person will experience this condition more easily if they have risk factors such as:
- Have a family history of type 2 diabetes.
- Less active. Because this physical activity helps control body weight, burns glucose as energy, and makes body cells more sensitive to insulin. So, if you are less active, a person can be more prone to this type 2 diabetes.
- Increasing age.
- Suffer from high blood pressure.
- Have abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels. A person who has low levels of good cholesterol or HDL and high levels of triglycerides is more at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
How to fix it
To control diabetes, the Ministry of Health has established 13,500 Integrated Guidance Posts (Posbindu) to facilitate access for residents to detect diabetes early. In addition, the community is also encouraged to take smart actions by doing the following things, namely:
- Regular health checks to control body weight to stay ideal and not risk getting sick easily, check blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol regularly.
- Eliminate cigarette smoke and do not smoke.
- Be diligent in doing physical activity at least 30 minutes a day, such as sports, walking, cleaning the house. Try to do this properly, correctly, regularly and measurably.
- A balanced diet by eating healthy and balanced nutrition, consuming at least 5 servings of fruit and vegetables per day, as much as possible to reduce sugar consumption to a maximum of 4 tablespoons or 50 grams per day, also avoid sweet or carbonated foods and drinks.
- Enough rest.
- Manage stress properly.
- Monitor blood sugar independently, you will not be bothered at all because there is already a sugar level measuring device that is very easy to use. The recommended time for independent blood sugar monitoring is just before eating, 2 hours after eating, at bedtime, or when experiencing certain symptoms.
- Medicines also cannot be separated from efforts to overcome diabetes mellitus such as treatment in the form of insulin given by injection, while for type 2 diabetes, there are several classes of oral drugs that can be given as indicated by a doctor. However, in certain cases, injectable insulin is also given for type 2 diabetes.