Investigation for gravity test

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07. May 2021, 01.06 WIB

A new telescope to study Einstein’s theory of relativity and higher density objects in the universe. Using South Africa’s MeerKAT telescope, astronomers are systematically studying the pulsating binary star for gravity tests. Press release from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Bonn.

May 6, 2021 – A group of international astronomers led by the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) in Bonn and the University of British Columbia (UBC) in Vancouver presented the first results of a large-scale observation program created by the South. MeerKAT African radio telescope to test Einstein’s theory with unprecedented accuracy. That program is called binary and relativistic pulsar ?? (RelBin) The first results are presented in an article published today in the Journal of Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society? Described.

Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity is one of the best research theories in physics and is currently the best description of gravity, however, questions remain, such as the nature of dark matter ?? Or “dark energy” ?? It hasn’t been answered yet, and possible deviations from general relativity are still under investigation. Here, the study of binary pulsars, extremely high-density stars that act as cosmic beacons and minutes, provides unique insights that complement other experiments, for example with gravitational wave detectors or satellite missions.

Pulsars are about 15 miles in size and are mostly made of neutrons. With a mass about twice the mass of the Sun, it is the most extreme object in the observable universe. By tracking their movements around potential companions, other neutron stars or larger “white dwarfs,” which are the nuclei of ordinary stars exposed at the end of their lives, radio telescopes such as MeerKAT in South Africa can find their location in their own orbits. only about 30 meter! This can reveal a number of relativistic effects in orbital motion, such as emission of gravitational waves or effects on light propagation in strong gravitational fields.

The MeerKAT Telescope is an excellent new radio telescope developed by the Radio Astronomy Observatory in South Africa. (Saraw) built and operated. It provides high sensitivity due to the signal set from 64 individual antennas, 13 meters long. As part of a large survey proposal? MeerTime, led by Professor Matthew Biles from Swinburne University in Australia, is a project “Relative and Binary Pulsars”. (RelBin) Under the direction of Professor Michael Kramer, Director of the MPIfR, Bonn, and Professor Ingrid Steers, University of British Columbia in Canada, the best science program proposed for MeerKAT. The RelBin International team together with colleagues from Africa, Australia, Europe and North America are now presenting the first results of this program.

RelBin is primarily focused on monitoring relativistic effects in pulsar binary systems to enable accurate measurement of neutron star mass and testing of the theory of gravity. Even if detailed results can only be expected after a few months of observation, the team can already show that observations with MeerKAT typically increase the current data from other telescopes by a factor of 2-3, sometimes by an entire order of magnitude. Michael Kramer Excited: Meerkats Perform Better Than We Expected! We can now do an experiment that will not only take about 10 years with other telescopes, but we can also do it with more precision.

Sources under study include the well-known dual pulsar system, in which two pulsars orbit each other in just 2.5 hours. Project co-leader Ingrid Stairs explained, “Now we can examine this system in more detail. This system is constantly changing its orbital configuration due to relativistic effects, and we were able to closely follow these effects for tests of general relativity. ”

RelBin is the largest relativistic double pulsar study to date and also aims to increase the mass number of neutron stars measured precisely. Dr. Vivek Venkatraman Krishnan, MPIfR postdoctoral student and one of the organizers of the work, summed up this: ?? The mass of the neutron star provides information about how dense the mass of matter in the universe is. Through MeerKAT’s observations of the relativistic effects of neutron star motion in binary systems, we can measure their mass with an accuracy of about 1% or better, and possibly prove or exclude any number of models proposed by nuclear physicists. ??

Matthew Biles’ team at Swinburne University of Technology has developed a supercomputer infrastructure that takes nearly 300 million megabytes of input from a telescope every day and converts it into scientifically usable data. “MeerKAT is an excellent example of a global science project where experts from all over the world come together to build a great tool that puts Einstein’s laws into its stride,” he said.

The Merkat Telescope Network operated by Saraw is the largest radio telescope in the Southern Hemisphere and one of the two main devices for Project SKA, which was set up in South Africa. The radio telescope in the Karoo Desert will soon be developed by the Max Planck Society in collaboration with SARAO and INAF in Italy to include additional reflective antennas. This project called “MeerKAT +” will enhance MeerKAT’s capabilities. The telescope will be gradually integrated into the SKAO Central Telescope. The first scientific observations with the upgraded MeerKAT telescope could begin as early as 2023, while the telescope is still being tested.

We just want to congratulate our South African colleagues on their excellent performance. We are proud and grateful that we were able to use the telescope with our African colleagues for our joint study. Look forward to even more interesting results! Michael Kramer concluded.

Background information
One of the South African Radio Astronomical Observatories (SARAO) MeerKAT Telescope Network is the largest radio telescope in the Southern Hemisphere and one of the two early instruments of Project SKA, which will be in South Africa. The radio telescope located in the Karoo Desert will soon be expanded to include an additional antenna equivalent to the Meerkat Project. expanded. The telescope will be gradually integrated into the SKA project, and construction of the telescope will begin soon and will continue until 2028. The first scientific observations using MeerKAT + could begin as early as 2023, during the telescope’s testing phase.

MeerTIME is a “major survey proposal” for the MeerKAT Telescope, which is administered by the Swinburne University of Technology. In collaboration with several Australian institutes as well as INAF, University of Manchester, MPIfR, NRAO and SARAO.

????????????????????????????????????????????????? Is RelBin a science program as part of the “big survey proposal”? MeerTime, for the systematic investigation of the pulsar binary system for gravity tests. The program was moderated by Professor Michael Kramer, Director of the MPIfR in Bonn, and Professor Ingrid Stairs from the University of British Columbia (UBC). RelBin’s international research team consists of scientists from Africa, Australia, Europe and North America.

The publishing research team included Michael Kramer, Ingrid H. Tangga, Vivek Venkatraman Krishnan, Paolo C. Freire, Federico Abate, Matthew Biles, Marta Burgay, Sandra Bochner, David J.Champion, Ismail Cognard, Tasha Gautam, Marisa Geyer, Lucas Guillemot, Huanchen Hu, Gemma Janssen, Marcus E. Lower, Aditya Parthasarathy, Andrea Possenti, Scott Ransom, Daniel J.Rridon, Alessandro Ridolfi, Maciej Serylak, Ryan M. Shannon, Renée Spiewak, Gilles Theureau, Willem van Straten, Norbert Wex, Lucy S. Oswald, Betina Bosselt, Charlotte Soby, Ewoan Dr. Barr, Fernando Camilo, Benjamin Hugo, Andrew Jameson, Simon Johnston, Aris Carstrigo, Michael Keith, and Stefan Usowski. Eleven authors (Kramer, Venkatraman Krishnan, Frere, Abatee, Champion, Gotham, He, Parthasarathy, Ridolfi, Wicks and Parr) are included in the MPIfR.

Originalveröffentlichung
MEERKAT’s Binary Relative Program: Science Goals and Outcomes
M. Kramer dkk.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS), Vol. 504, Issue 2, June 2021, Pages 2094 2114),
DOI: doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stab375

MEERKAT’s Binary Relative Program: Science Goals and Outcomes
arXiv-Preprint (Kramer et al. 2114, MNRAS Volume 504, Issue 2, June 2021, Pages 2094 ?? 2114)

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Source: Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy

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