The participants’ overall sleep quality and patterns were then analyzed by the researchers. These include, duration, insomnia, snoring, and other associated features such as whether they wake up early, stay up late, or are often drowsy, or fall asleep during the day.
After adjusting for factors such as diabetes, hypertension, drug use, genetic variation, and other covariates, participants with the healthiest sleep patterns had a 42 percent lower risk of heart failure than those with unhealthy sleep patterns.
In addition, the risk was 8 percent lower in those who woke up early, 12 percent lower in those who slept 7 to 8 hours each day, 17 percent lower in those who did not have frequent insomnia, and 34 percent lower in those who reported not sleepy during the day.
In this study, the participants self-reported their sleep behavior. Information about behavior change during follow-up was also not available.
The investigators also noted other unmeasured or unknown adjustments that may have contributed to their findings.