Wash your hands often, strengthen personal hygiene habits, and do not directly touch your eyes, nose and mouth with your hands to avoid contact with the flu; the picture shows the situation. (photo taken from freepik)
Text / Jian Shuzhen
Influenza (abbreviated as influenza) is an acute viral respiratory disease, which can be contracted by people of any age and is a highly contagious disease. Children with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to infections and tend to have more severe symptoms and longer recovery times. After infection, sick children often experience symptoms such as fever, headache, body aches, fatigue, runny nose, sore throat and cough, and recover within an average of 2 to 7 days.
Influenza viruses can be divided into 4 types A, B, C and D, among which types A and B can cause seasonal epidemics. Taiwan can occur all year round, usually in winter, and the peak epidemic period is from December to January and February of the following year. Influenza infection occurs mainly through respiratory droplets, especially in confined spaces, where it is easy to infect others through droplets from an infected person’s cough or sneeze; because influenza viruses can survive for a short time on the surface of objects, they can also contact the droplets through the hands The surface of the contaminated article, then touch the mouth, nose or eyes to cause virus infection .
The infectious period is 3-5 days for adults and 7 days for children after the onset of symptoms. In addition to the symptoms of fever, headache, body aches, fatigue, runny nose, sore throat and cough, some infected people may also experience gastrointestinal symptoms, which can also lead to serious complications and even death; the most common complication is pneumonia and other Encephalitis, myocarditis and secondary infections or neurological diseases.
Therapeutic drugs include neuramine enzyme inhibitors, such as Zanamivir (Relenza) and Oseltamivir (Tamiflu), which can effectively inhibit the spread of influenza virus, and can treat influenza A and B viruses simultaneously. Among them, Tamiflu ( commonly known as Tamiflu) is taken orally, which has mild side effects (some cause nausea and vomiting), Zanamivir (commonly known as Relenza) is a powder, which should be administered by inhalation. skill to use and is generally recommended for children over 5 years old.
● Wash your hands often, strengthen personal hygiene habits, and do not directly touch your eyes, nose and mouth with your hands to avoid contact infections.
● Keep the home environment clean and keep the air circulating inside to reduce the possibility of virus transmission.
●If you have flu-like symptoms, seek medical attention as soon as possible to prevent complications such as pneumonia and encephalitis after infection. After consulting a doctor, it is advisable to rest at home, reduce travel in public places and wear a mask if you go out.
●During the flu epidemic, avoid going to crowded public places with poor air circulation.
●Annual flu vaccination is the most effective way to prevent the flu, which can avoid the risk of serious complications after infection.
● Pay attention to a balanced diet, you can take some foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, oranges, grapefruit, etc., or supplement vitamin C tablets.
(The author is the head nurse of 5B Ward of Xinguang Hospital. This article is from “Xinguang Medical News”)