Get to know the difference between vaccination and immunization

Jakarta, CNN Indonesia –

Not a few think that vaccination and immunization is the same thing. Though they are two different things.

Unfortunately, this difference is often ignored considering that both have benefits to increase the body’s resistance to certain diseases. But behind that, vaccination and immunization actually have different ways of working in the body.

The following is the difference between vaccination and immunization, summarized from various sources.


Vaccination is the process of giving vaccines by injection or dripping by mouth to increase the production of antibodies which are also an antidote to disease.

Substances that are introduced into the body through vaccinations – which are called vaccines – usually contain weakened viruses or bacteria. They also contain bacteria-like proteins obtained from development in the laboratory.

Citing the Regulation of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia No.12 of 2017 concerning the Implementation of Immunization, vaccines are ‘biological products containing antigens in the form of dead or living microorganisms that are weakened, intact or part of them, or in the form of microorganism toxins that have been processed into toxoid or recombinant protein , to which it is added with other substances, which when given to a person actively induces specific immunity against certain diseases. ‘

Foto: AP / Tatan Syuflana
vaccination illustration

“When we are given the vaccine, our bodies will form antibodies to protect us. So we will be immune to infections in the future and there will be no pain period,” said Endah in a Webinar of the Committee for Handling Covid-19 and National Economic Recovery (KPCPEN). the theme ‘Disinformation of Post-Immunization Associated Events’ some time ago.

Read Also:  The tragedy of adolescent life - pumps, and how to deal with them

The content of the vaccine causes the body’s immune reaction, so that the body can fight infection at a later date. This process is also known as immunization in the body.

The method of giving vaccines in immunization also varies.

Some vaccines are only given once for a lifetime. However, there are also those that need to be given regularly so that the immune system is properly formed.

Although it is more often given to children, vaccines can actually be given to adults as a form of advanced immunization, or with a different type.

In Indonesia itself, as quoted by Alodokter, there are at least five mandatory vaccinations that must be given, namely hepatitis B, polio, BCG vaccines to prevent tuberculosis, measles, and DTP to prevent diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus.

In addition to the mandatory vaccines, there are a number of vaccines recommended by the government, for example the hepatitis A, HPV, varicella, MMR, rotavirus, influenza, typhoid, and others vaccines.


Immunization is a process in the body so that a person has immunity to disease. Referring to the Regulation of the Minister of Health related to this matter, immunization is an effort to cause or actively increase a person’s immunity against a disease so that if one day he is exposed to the disease he will not get sick or only experience mild illness.

There are two types of immunization, namely active and passive immunization.

In active immunization, the body actively produces antibodies as a form of immunity to disease after a person has been vaccinated. Active immunization is an immune response that is formed when children get vaccinated every month.

Read Also:  Research: 'Older people in nursing homes did not suffer from lockdown'

On the other hand, passive immunization is giving antibodies from someone who is already immune to the disease to someone who is not immune. This situation can occur naturally, for example, giving antibodies from the body of a pregnant woman to the fetus in her womb.

However, this process can also occur artificially, for example in the form of immunoglobulin injection. So that in passive immunization, you do not actively form immunity, but get it from what is already formed.

In active immunization, it takes time for the immune system to form. Meanwhile, in passive immunization, immunity can be obtained immediately.

Active immunization can last longer in the long term to a lifetime, whereas passive immunization only lasts in a matter of weeks to months.

Each country has its own rules regarding the obligation to carry out immunizations.

Although at first glance it looks similar, the difference between vaccination and immunization can be seen from the process. In other words, vaccination is the process of inserting vaccines into the body, while immunization is the process when the body has become immune to disease after vaccination.

(agn / chs)

[Gambas:Video CNN]


Share on facebook
Share on pinterest
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin
Share on email


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.