Class 10 High school physics Material Odd semester The nature of physics

EDUCATIONBORNEO, PONTIANAK – Friends educators, refer to the discussion of the high school physics lesson of the odd semester of Class 10 in the textbook of Physics Chapter 1 the nature of physics and the scientific method.

The nature of physics

Science is knowledge that studies natural phenomena through observation, experiment and analysis.

Science is essentially a body of knowledge (“a body of knowledge”), way or way of thinking (“a way of thinking”),
and methods for research (“a way of investigating”).

Another term also used to express the nature of science is science as a product to replace the affirmation of science as a collection of knowledge (“a body of knowledge”).

IPA as an attitude to replace the IPA statement as a way or way of thinking (“a way of thinking”), and IPA as a process to replace IPA statements as a means of investigation (“A way of investigating”).

Since physics is part of science or science, then at this stage we can equate the perception that, the nature of physics is the same as the nature of science or science, the nature of physics is like a product
(“a body of knowledge”), physics as an attitude (“a way of thinking”),
and physics as a process (“A way of investigating”).

a. Physics as a product

The product referred to in physics is a set of knowledge that can be in the form of facts, concepts, principles, laws, formulas, theories and models.

Have you ever seen a rainbow like in the photo below?

You have seen this phenomenon.

Scientific facts

A scientific fact is an accurate description of what is observed or an objective claim that can be confirmed (empirical)
about something that actually existed or an event that actually happened.


• Magnets attract certain objects.

• Liquid water particles falling into the air are spherical.

• Rainbows are made up of different colors.

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Science concept

A scientific concept is a common sense formulation or idea about an object or event that is based on the properties of the object or event.


• The magnetic pole is the part of the magnet that has the greatest strength.

• Distance is the length of the path an object travels while moving.


The principle of science is the formulation or generalization of the relationship between facts and concepts. The principle is more analytical, not just empirical.


• The heated air expands. This is an example of a scientific principle that relates the concepts of air, heat and expansion.

• Water always flows from high places to low places. There is the concept of water, flowing, and high and low.

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Laws are specific principles that are widely accepted after repeated testing.


• Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but only transformed (law of conservation of energy).

• An object immersed in water will receive an upward force equal to the weight of the water displaced by the object (Archimedes’ Law).


A scientific theory is a general explanation or imaginative model of the relationship between facts, concepts and principles.

Scientific theories are useful for facilitating the understanding, prediction or control of natural phenomena.


• Big bang theory: the universe, galaxies and stars and the solar system were formed through the big bang event.

• The theory of global warming: “Because the atmosphere is filled with gases that trap heat, the temperature of the earth’s atmosphere has risen.

• Atomic theory: Atoms are made up of a nucleus (protons and neutrons)
which is surrounded by electrons moving in a certain orbit.


A formula is a mathematical statement of a fact, concept, principle, law and theory. In the formula we can see the interrelationships between concepts and variables.

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In general, principles and laws can be stated mathematically.


A model is a presentation made for something that cannot be seen.

Models are very useful for helping to understand a natural phenomenon, also useful for helping to understand a theory.


• Bohr’s atomic model helps to understand atomic theory.

b. Physics as a process

Physics as a scientific process is related to how scientists work to obtain the knowledge that makes up physics.

In this case, the knowledge of physics is obtained through a method of investigation (a way to investigate)
For a phenomenon, a scientist must skillfully perform a series of scientific processes.

The scientific process that must be carried out by a scientist in carrying out scientific investigations includes:

1. Observe (observation), or the performance of activities involving the five senses (sight, hearing, sensation, touch, smell) of a natural object or phenomenon under investigation.

2. Classify (classify), namely the ordering of various natural objects or phenomena based on similarities in their properties or characteristics in order to investigate a similar collection of natural objects or phenomena.

3. Take the measurements, that is, to compare certain quantities of a natural object or phenomenon with other quantities (of the same type) which are determined as units.

4. Ask questions, that is, asking questions about natural objects or phenomena under investigation and identifying questions that could be answered through scientific investigations.

5. Formulate the hypothesis, that is, to explain the observations in terms of concepts and principles and to use the explanations to make predictions about the observed phenomena.

6. Planning and conducting investigations (experiments), i.e. make a scientific work plan to get some data and then carry out scientific work according to the project.

7. Interpret and interpret data or information, that is to analyze data, generalize, draw conclusions and make predictions based on certain patterns or references.

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8. Communicate, that is, to transmit the results of experiments or investigations using appropriate methods and media.

c. Physics as an attitude

Each step of the process requires a good scientific attitude, which includes curiosity, trust, creativity, completeness, objective, honest, open, willing to cooperate and willing to listen to the opinions of others.

2. Branches of Physics

The scope of the study of physics is very broad. The breadth of the scope of this study of physics then gave rise to branches of physics with more specific studies.

In general, physics is divided into classical physics and modern physics.

Classical physics is a branch of physics born and developed before the 20th century.

Meanwhile, modern physics are branches of physics born and developed after the twentieth century.

You can see some examples of branches of classical physics and modern physics.

Physics is a fundamental science. namely the science which is the basis and has many contributions to other sciences, such as chemistry, biology, cosmology and geology.

Furthermore, the broad scope or scope of the study of physics also contributes to the emergence of a new science which is a combination of physics and other disciplines.

Some of these sciences include:

Astrophysics, namely the science of the properties and interactions of celestial bodies contained in the science of astronomy

▪ Biophysics, namely the science of physical interactions in biological processes

Chemical physics, namely the science of physical relations contained in chemistry

▪ Ecophysics, namely the science of physical processes and relations in economics

Geophysics, namely the science of physical relationships found on planet earth

medical physics, namely the science of applying physics in the field of (medical) medicine in the process of disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

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