New Renewable Energy Struggle in Bali Province
Chronology of the Bedugul PLTP Development and its Problems
The Buyan-Bratan Volcano complex on the island of Bali has promising geothermal potential. Geothermal energy in the Bratan caldera has the potential to produce electricity reaching 225 MW (ESDM, 2009). The Plan for the Development of a Geothermal Power Plant (PLTP) in the area of the Buyan-Bratan Volcano Complex has been designed since 1974 by designating Buleleng and Tabanan Regencies as Geothermal Working Areas (WKP). Furthermore, the construction of the Bedugul PLTP was started in 1995 by PT Pertamina Geothermal Energy (PGE) and Bali Energy Ltd (BEL).
The rejection of the Bedugul PLTP occurred when the construction process was almost complete, as a result the construction of the Bedugul PLTP stalled before operating. The community’s refusal is based on the community’s belief that the Gunung area is a sacred area for Balinese Hindus. The plan reappeared several years later until its peak in 2019, rejection after rejection continued to be made from both the community, Walhi, PHDI, and the Bali Provincial Government.
Geothermal Power Plants are indeed the most effective part of New and Renewable Energy, but it is important to know that culture and people’s beliefs are more important than that. Instead of using PLTP in the Bratan Caldera, it is better to promote geotourism and cultural tourism in the Buyan-Bratan Caldera area.
Tourism Potential in the Mount Buyan-Bratan Caldera Area
The potential for geotourism is quite interesting, such as climbing on the tops of the cones of Mount Buyan-Bratan which have a dominant temple on it. It should be noted that the Buyan-Bratan Volcano complex is one of the volcanic complexes that formed during the Holocene on the island of Bali from the middle to the north. What is the Holocene? The Holocene period started from the last ice age period, which is about 11,700 years until now. This indicates that the Buyan-Bratan Volcano Complex had eruptive activity thousands of years ago. Data on the eruption of the Holocene caldera were obtained through various geological and morphological studies of the Buyan-Bratan Volcano Complex in the 20th century.
The Buyan-Bratan Volcano Complex consists of volcanic cones, from Batukaru Peak in the southwest to Catur Peak in the northeast. Several cones grow in the Bratan caldera. Bratan Caldera has an area of about 11 x 6 km. Bratan caldera is also known as Catur or Tjatur caldera by local people. Bratan Caldera consists of three lakes within the caldera. Several post-caldera stratovolcanoes formed on the southern edge of the caldera lake; the largest post-caldera cone, Batukaru, is about 10 km to the southwest. The Batukaru cone is almost perfectly symmetrical, the Batukaru cone body has been covered with thick soil sediment and vegetation. The Batukaru cone has been considered inactive for hundreds or thousands of years (Wheller, 1986). The Tapak and Lesung cones are not covered by the youngest dacite pumice eruption deposits near the Batur volcano, and these cones are estimated to be less than 23,000 years old.
Preservation of several temples in the Buyan-Bratan Volcano Complex, such as the Ulun Danu Beratan Temple, Ulun Danu Tamblingan Temple and other temples around the caldera as well as the temples on the tops of the Buyan-Bratan cones provide more supply for the people’s economy in the Volcano Complex. Buyan-Bratan. Related parties should improve the quality of infrastructure around hot spring tourism, which is located in more than 12 locations around the Bratan Caldera, so that it can attract more tourists when the pandemic ends.
New and Renewable Energy (EBT) that is suitable for Balinese Culture
Balinese Hindu belief in environmental sustainability must be appreciated. How come? Since the first time Rsi Markandeya and his followers came to the island of Bali to build Besakih Temple, Balinese Hindus have had a very strong faith relationship with the mountains and their natural surroundings.
The people of the island of Bali should not be forced to accept the new concept of renewable energy, but the concept of renewable energy must adapt so that it can be accepted by the people of the island of Bali with a transparent system. Then what concept of EBT is appropriate for the people of Bali Island? The answer is Solar Power Plants (PLTS). Based on SNI 8395; 2017, PLTS is a power generation system whose energy comes from solar radiation, through the conversion of photovoltaic cells. This photovoltaic system converts solar radiation into electrical energy.
Why is PLTS Suitable for Bali Island? There are two general PV mini-grid systems, centralized PV mini-grid, commercial scale PV mini-grid by developers which are sold to PLN, and distributed PV mini-grid system that can be installed at customer sites. Unlike other energy sources, PLTS does not emit noise, such as the negative impact of the Wind Power Company (PLTB), PLTS does not emit air pollution like the Steam Power Company (PLTU), PLTS does not damage the water ecosystem such as the Hydro Power Company (PLTA). . If the Solar Cell is damaged, the owner can request to repair it and the waste will be managed by the State Electricity Company. Switching fossil energy to PV mini-grid, which has very minimal risk of environmental damage, will help reduce the impact of climate change.
Getting to know PLTS Roofing the EXIM kWh Meter System
Technology in the field of PLTS is growing very rapidly. In 2018, the Rooftop PLTS program was introduced by the Ministry of Energy, Resources and Minerals (ESDM). One of the flagship programs is the PLTS Roof Based on the EXIM kWh meter. This program uses an on-grid PLTS system, which is a PLTS system that is connected to other power generation distribution networks (eg the PLN network). Interestingly, PLTS Roof, does not use batteries, and has a dispersed system.
PLTS Roof based on the EXIM (export-Import) kWh meter is a solar power system with a method of calculating the use of electrical energy installed at PLN customers’ homes and has a function to record the production (export) and consumption (import) quantities of the customer.
This electricity system requires a Net metering electricity billing mechanism that allows consumers to produce part or all of the electricity system for the Rooftop PLTS owner, where when there is excess production from the solar system, it can be channeled to the utility network and get compensation according to applicable policies.
The use of the EXIM kWh meter based on the net metering mechanism in Indonesia is regulated in the ESDM ministerial regulation with PLN as the provider of the electricity utility network. The way the EXM kWH meter works based on net metering is that the consumer who owns the solar electricity system will be connected in parallel with the PLN electricity network. Interestingly, Rooftop PLTS is not only for household customers, but can also be installed on business, social, industrial and government customers. Please note, the net metering scheme in Indonesia uses a system of exchange for the number of kWh of exports and imports, so that PLN does not provide electricity credit in the form of money to customers. Installation of rooftop PLTS means having a source of electrical energy other than PLN electricity, because electricity needs are met by two sources, so the solar cell electrical system will be very efficient. save electricity bill customers in the long run.
The island of Bali, which is in a subduction zone, has the potential to be affected by natural disasters in the form of tectonic and volcanic earthquakes in the future, so that the use of PLTS will be more efficient to minimize the impacts that occur due to natural disasters in the future.
Let’s advance the island of Bali with a new, renewable energy system based on solar power!
Solar Photovoltaic (PV) is a technology that converts sunlight (solar radiation) into direct current electricity using semiconductors. When the sun hits the semiconductor in a PV cell, electrons are released and form an electric current.
ESDM, 2009. Construction of the Bedugul PLTP Does Not Disturb the Environment. ESDM News Archive: Source URL: https://www.esdm.go.id/id/media-center/arsip-berita/pembangun-pltp-bedugul-not-disruptive-environment
Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Buyan-Bratan (264001) in Volcanoes of the World, v. 4.10.1 (29 Jun 2021). Venzke, E (ed.). Smithsonian Institution. Downloaded 07 Jul 2021 (https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=264001). https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013
Indonesia Clean Energy Development (ICED) II, 2020. A Guide to Planning and Utilization of Rooftop Solar Power Plants in Indonesia. Indonesia, ICED II, MEMR and USAID.
Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources Regulation No.49 of 2018 concerning the Use of Rooftop Solar Power Generation Systems by Customers of PT. State Electricity Company (Persero).
Regulation of the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources No.13 of 2019 on Amendments to the Regulation of the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources No.49 of 2018
Regulation of the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources No.16 of 2019 on the Second Amendment of the Regulation of the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources No.49 of 2018
SNI 8395:2017 Feasibility Study Guide for the Development of Photovoltaic Solar Power Plants (PLTS), 2017, National Standardization Agency