According to the generally accepted theory of the origin of the universe, everything that ever existed, is and will exist as a result of the Big Bang. But what came before him?
Inflationary model of the universe
Physicists claim that before its birth, the universe was packed into an infinitely dense point – singularity… Exploded, this “point” led to the emergence of everything that we see and know. However, for many physicists, 13.7 billion years is not enough time to form highly complex structures such as superclusters of stars and galaxies.
Laureate Sir Roger Penrose, professor at Oxford University, thinks the Big Bang model leaves a lot to be desired. The scientist came to this conclusion by studying black holes and the only evidence left after the Big Bang is the cosmic microwave background radiation (relic radiation), which arose when the universe was only 300,000 years old.
Relict radiation Is heat radiation uniformly filling the Universe and originated in the early Universe.
Penrose is convinced that the Big Bang was not the beginning of the universe. It is just one of a series of cyclical Big Bangs or “Aeons”, each of which has given birth to a new chapter in the history of our Universe.
Before the Big Bang, there was an earlier universe that we can observe today. The Big Bang was not the beginning.
Sir Roger Penrose, Nobel Prize Laureate in Physics 2020
Penrose believes that our Universe is not the first and not the lastsince the current model of the Big Bang, which is based in part on inflation, does not explain the reasons why a low-entropy, highly ordered state existed at the birth of our universe. Unless everything was set in motion long before the Big Bang happened.
Inflationary model of the universe – a hypothesis about the physical state and the law of expansion of the Universe shortly after the Big Bang. Inflation assumes a period of accelerated expansion compared to the standard model of a hot universe.
According to Penrose’s theory, our Universe has already returned and will again return to a state of low entropy, becoming a finite nothing by the last days of its expansion, leaving behind a cold and dark abyss. The reason Penrose thinks so is in physics. black holes – mysterious objects in space-time, the gravitational attraction of which is so great that even light cannot leave them. Back in 1964, nine years after the death of Albert Einstein, Sir Roger suggested that black holes are an inevitable consequence of General Relativity (GR).
Recall that the existence of black holes was confirmed in 2017 after the discovery of gravitational waves, and then astronomers received the first ever picture of the shadow of a black hole. For more information on how scientists succeeded,
What are Hawking Points?
Shortly before the presentation of the Nobel Prize in the magazine An article by Roger Penrose in collaboration with Vahe Gurzadyan from the Yerevan Institute of Physics was published, devoted to the so-called Hawking’s points (Hawking points) – very clear “thermal” circles in the relic radiation, the diameter of which is eight times the diameter of the moon. Hawking points got their name in honor of the outstanding British theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking.
In total, Penrose and Gurzadyan discovered more than 12 Hawking points – previously unobserved anomalous round spots in the relict radiation, with a significantly increased temperature.
According to the current model of the universe, any temperature fluctuations in the CMB must be random, but Penrose argues that this is not the case. For him, Hawking points are a spherical proof of the existence gravitational waves – the ripples in space-time that result from the collision of massive black holes. But these collisions took place during the previous Aeon (in the Universe that existed before the current Big Bang).
Essentially, Hawking Points are dead black holes that have outlived their own universes. Today they are at the end of their lives, emitting radiation and evaporating into nothing.
“Our Big Bang began with something that was the distant future of the previous Aeon, and it would contain the same black holes as in our Universe, passing through Hawking’s evaporation. They would have produced these points in the sky, which I call Hawking points. “– notes the Nobel laureate in an interview
Because black holes are a kind of vacuum cleaners of our Universe that let in radiation and destroy everything they touch, they spend their cosmic life working to cleanse the universe of entropy. As the expansion of the universe draws to a close, the remaining black holes in it will begin to evaporate or swallow each other, thereby returning things to a state of order.
Hawking radiation – a hypothetical process of emission by a black hole of various elementary particles, mainly photons.
During this period, the universe will gradually return to the same state in which it was during the Big Bang – when the geometry of space-time was smooth, which is in stark contrast to its current uneven shape. Sir Penrose states that these processes will mark the beginning of a new Aeon… Thus, the universe collapses back into itself as a highly ordered system capable of causing the next Big Bang.
Summarizing the above, we note that, according to Penrose, the Big Bang is a cyclical process and after our Universe, another one will be born, and then another and another – and so on ad infinitum. Of course, the hypothesis of a cyclic universe has not been proven and raises many questions, but if Sir Roger Penrose is right, then the present universe is just one of an infinite number of Aeons following each other in an infinitely repeating cycle.
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