Different types of treatment can be offered to patients with aplastic anemia. THE choice of treatment is done case by case depending on the cause of the aplasia, its severity, the patient’s age and any previous treatments.
Treatments are categorized as follows:
- Immunosuppressive treatmentsindicated in idiopathic aplastic anemia (autoimmune immunological mechanism): ciclosporin and anti-lymphocyte serum are the main treatments used, alemtuzumab (an antibody that destroys T lymphocytes) can also be used.
- The hematopoietic stem cell transplant (more commonly called bone marrow transplantation) can be proposed in idiopathic and genetic aplastic anemia.
- THE stimulating treatments marrow : these are analogs of thrombopoietin (Eltrombopag or Romiplostin) and androgens.
- THE supportive care which include transfusions of red blood cells and platelets, and treatments aimed at preventing infections (antibiotics) in particular. Iron chelation treatments are sometimes used after 20 transfusions.
- The specialized hematological follow-up which may be the only treatment in moderate aplastic anemia but which is essential regardless of the type of aplastic anemia.