- The poles are heating up faster than the equator;
- The jet stream deforms further;
- Extremes are becoming more frequent.
The planet is not warming uniformly. Scientists follow climate change by paying attention to temperature anomalies. Satellite observations show that the poles are warming much faster than more equatorial regions.
A balanced atmospheric pattern shows a more rectilinear jet stream which is maintained in equilibrium with a mass of very cold air in the north and warm air in the south. When the gap between the two is large, high altitude winds blow more forcefully and tend to warp less.
A scenario that is repeated more and more while the Earth warms unevenly: the southern pattern. As the temperature difference between the poles and the equator decreases, high altitude winds tend to weaken. As it loses intensity, the jet stream tends to deflect, meander and split. This allows ridges or valleys to form. Warm air rises from very northern latitudes while cold air masses tend to descend very far to the south.
With the formation of these troughs, extreme weather events become more frequent. Disasters can occur more often, sudden temperature changes, as well as floods and droughts.
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