The theory of the formation of the solar system describes how the sun, planets and satellites can form and function in an ordered system. The formation process of the solar system is still a mystery. Because it cannot be observed or tested through experiments.
Many theories and hypotheses have been advanced by experts or scientists to answer this mystery.
Some of the theories for the formation of the solar system are the nebula theory, the planetesimal theory, the tidal theory, and the twin star theory. So quoted from the book Geography: opening the horizon of the world by Bambang Utoyo.
Below, see a full explanation of the theories that formed the solar system and its creators.
1. Kant-Laplace’s theory of fog
This theory was put forward by Immanuel Kant in 1755 (a German philosopher) and Peter of Laplace in 1796. The Kant-Laplace fog theory is a theory that explains that the universe contains gas which then collects into fog (nebula).
The attractive force between gases with large masses pulls gas with small mass around itself forming a large gathering of fog and rotating faster and faster as mentioned by Class X SMA/MA Geography.
In this very fast spinning process, material from the equatorial fog is blown out and condenses (due to cooling). The rotating nebula then shrinks to form a disk and the sun forms in the center of the disk.
Quoted from Companion Book for Elementary School Science National Science Olympiadthe spinning disk accelerates to form parts of the loose edges to form planets and orbit the core (the sun).
2. Theory of planetesimals
The theory of planetesimals was advanced by Ray Moulton, an American astronomer together with his colleague Thomas C. Chamberlain, a geologist,
They argue that this hypothesis is based on the same thinking as the nebula theory. The difference lies in the assumption that the formation of these planets does not have to come from a body, but is assumed to pass by another star that happens to pass when the distance between the Sun and other stars is short.
The gas clouds of some other stars are affected by the sun’s gravity and after cooling they form objects called planetesimals.
Due to the attraction between the objects themselves. these small objects agglomerate to become large and hot. This is caused by pressure due to mass buildup.
This theory may answer the question of why there are satellites on Jupiter and Saturn that have opposite orbits, as cited by the book Basic natural sciences by dr. Abdullah Ali.
3. Theory of tides
This theory was put forward by James Jeans and Harold Jeffrey in 1918, quoting from the book Explore Geography Volume 1 for Class X SMA/MA by dr. Sri Wijayanti, MPd.
They argue that the formation of planets and other members was initiated by a large star that approached the Sun a short distance away, almost even touching it.
Because the sun is so close to a large star, it causes the sun’s tongue or gas filaments to stretch out a long way and stretch towards the large cigar-shaped star.
These filaments form a planet, starting from the planet closest to the sun to the planet farthest from the sun. Large stars that approach the sun recede so that the presence of large stars has no effect on the forming planets.
4. The twin star theory
The twin star theory was advanced by an English astronomer, Fred Hoyle Lyttleton, in 1956 as quoted from the book Geography: A Tour of the Earth and the Universe by Hartono.
Lyttleton believes that the solar system originated from a combination of twin stars. In the beginning the Sun was a twin star revolving around each other.
Once another star passed and struck one of the twin stars which then destroyed it into small parts which continued to rotate and cooled into planets and other objects surrounding the star, which remained, namely the sun.
5. The Big Bang Theory
The theory of the formation of the solar system This was first proposed by cosmologist Abbe Lemaitre, in the 1920s, as cited by the book Geography: revealing the phenomena of the geosphere by Ahmed Yani.
The Big Bang theory posits that the universe began as a giant super-amic cluster whose contents are unimaginable but roughly like a giant fireball with a temperature between 10 billion and 1 trillion degrees Celsius.
This giant cluster of super atoms exploded about 15 billion years ago. The results of the powerful explosion spread in clouds and hydrogen. After hundreds of years, the dust and hydrogen form stars of different sizes.
Along with star formation, stars center together to form their respective groups which are then called galaxies.