Maybe we have often heard about the planets in our solar system. However, our universe is much more complex and has thousands of planets outside the solar system or what are commonly referred to as exoplanets.
Quoted from Space, so far it has been confirmed that there are more than 4,000 exoplanets. NASA, added that currently there are about 7,000 more exoplanets that are still awaiting classification.
The natural conditions possessed by some of these exoplanets are also very astonishing. The reason is, they have very extreme natural conditions such as raining iron and glass.
When compared to them, of course, the natural conditions on Earth are much calmer. Here are some exoplanets that have very extreme natural conditions.
10 Most Extreme Planets Outside the Solar System:
1. Planet WASP-76b – Melted Iron Rain
The planet discovered in 2013 is tidally locked to its host star, BD+01 316.
This means that one side of the planet will always face the star and the result will be extremely hot temperatures of up to about 2,500 degrees Celsius, hot enough to vaporize iron.
The other side of WASP-76b has a cooler temperature of at least around 1,000 degrees Celsius. This means that when the iron vapors are carried across half of the planet’s surface by strong winds, they will cool and form liquid droplets.
These molten iron droplets will fall and hit the colder side of the planet.
2. Planet HD 189733 b – Liquid Glass Rain
This planet is known as a beautiful and serene world, resembling a large blue ball that glitters like glass. Unfortunately, this beauty comes from the planet’s deadliest weather, namely molten glass rains.
Not only that, HD 189733 b also has other weather conditions that are also quite dire.
The reason is, this planet has a wind speed of around 9,000 kph. This supersonic wind causes rain glass to bend sideways and lift silicate particles, turning them into microscopic projectiles.
3. Planet Gliese 1132 b – Second Atmosphere
Recently, astronomers discovered surprising facts about planets that have many similarities to Earth. They found that the gravitational influence of the star Gliese 1132 b is 20% greater than that of the Sun.
This creates intense tidal forces that can compress and stretch the planet, also known as flexing. Flexing can produce violent volcanic activity and cause gases to rise to the planet’s surface.
NASA, revealed that these gases form a second atmosphere for this planet. This finding is especially exciting because it is the first time astronomers have found an atmosphere that can grow back.
4. Planet Kepler 10-b – Located in a Very Far Galaxy
This planet is known to orbit close to its star so that its surface temperature is about 1,300 degrees Celsius hotter than Earth.
In addition, Kepler 10-b can also create droplets of molten iron and silicates and has a lava-covered surface.
The high radiation from the star means that droplets of molten iron and silicate will not fall on the planet’s night side. These droplets would be carried away from the surface by stellar winds, giving the planet a fiery tail.
5. Planet Upsilon Andromeda b – World of Fire and Ice
Upsilon Andromeda b has a fairly extreme temperature difference between its day and night sides. This is because the day side experiences temperatures as high as 1,600 degrees Celsius and the night side has temperatures as low as minus 20 degrees Celsius.
NASA, revealed that the reason behind this phenomenon is due to the extraordinary size of its star, Upsilon Andromeda A. In addition, this star also has a hot area that is almost directly above this exoplanet.
6. Planet HR 5183 b – Has a Unique Orbit Shape
The orbit of this planet was found to be quite unique because it is egg-shaped and surrounds the host star. Astronomers at Caltech say the shape of the gas giant’s orbit is quite different because most orbits are usually circular.
The discovery process for HR 5183 b took 20 years of observations using three telescopes.
Unfortunately, until now we have not been able to see this planet around the orbit in full. Astronomers estimate the time it takes for the planet to orbit is about 45 to 100 Earth years.
7. Planet OGLE-2016-BLG-1928 – Can Travel Alone
This exoplanet was discovered by astronomers when it was traveling in the Milky Way at the end of 2020. This is because this exoplanet was separated from its parent star, causing it to wander alone.
OGLE-2016-BLG-1928, is believed to have formed in the conventional way around a star. However, this exoplanet was then knocked out by gravitational interactions with other planets causing the planet to wander on its own.
8. Planet TOI-178 – Harmonious and Chaotic System
Observations of this exoplanetary system reveal that five of the six planets in the system are locked in a rhythmic dance with each other.
The five outer planets are in 18:9:6:4:3 resonance, indicating that the first planet has completed 18 orbits while the second planet has completed 9 orbits, the third planet has completed six, and so on.
Unfortunately, the composition of the planets that make up the TOI-178 system does not show the harmony shown by their own motions.
9. Planet 55 Cancri e – Made of Diamonds
The composition of this exoplanet, commonly known as Janssen, is the reason this planet is conventionally the most valuable object in the universe. 55 Cancri e is twice the size of Earth, but has a mass 9 times that of Earth.
NASA, revealed that this exoplanet consists of high-pressure carbon in the form of graphite and diamond mixed with iron and other elements.
This makes the planet’s estimated value 384 quadrillion more than the entire Earth’s gross domestic product.
Unfortunately, the notion that this exoplanet is made of diamonds has been challenged since 55 Cancri e was first discovered in 2004. That’s because diamonds may not be immortal.
10. Planet Blanets – Located Around Black Holes
This exoplanet is considered very extreme because it will orbit a supermassive black hole. However, until now there has been no evidence that planets orbiting black holes or ‘blanets’ really exist.
The planet is thought to have formed from the gravitational collapse of high-density regions within a protoplanetary cloud of gas and dust.
Meanwhile, supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are at the center of a large disk that rotates with this material.
A recent study modeling the dynamics of this disc of gas and dust suggests that under certain conditions, planet formation around black holes should occur.
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